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Flashcards in Final Exam Deck (118):
1

part of an ocean extending into land and usually larger than a bay

Gulf

2

a narrow strip of land with water on both sides connecting two larger areas of land

Isthmus

3

part of an ocean or lake extending into land and usually smaller than a gulf

Bay

4

a narrow waterway connecting two large bodies of water

Straight

5

a triangular deposit of sand and soil that collects at the mouth of some rivers

Delta

6

a sheltered area of water where ships can anchor safely

Harbor

7

a stream or river that flows into a larger stream or river

Tributary

8

a point of land extending into a body of water

Cape

9

a fertile place in the desert where there is water and some vegetation

Oasis

10

a group of many islands

Archipelago

11

low wet land that supports grass and trees

Swamp

12

a large stream of water that flows into a lake or ocean or other body of water

River

13

an opening in the earth's surface through which steam and ashes and lava are forced out

Volcano

14

a broad and flat or gently rolling area usually low in elevation

Plain

15

low land between hills or mountains

Valley

16

a large body of water surrounded by land

Lake

17

a row of connected mountains

Mountain Range

18

a land form with high elevation and a pointed or rounded top higher than a hill

Mountain

19

a huge mass of ice that moves slowly down a mountain

Glacier

20

the part of a river where its waters flow into another body of water

Mouth

21

a dry barren region that may be sandy and without trees that does not get more than 10 inches of rain per year.

Desert

22

a narrow deep waterway connecting two bodies of water OR the deepest part of a river or waterway

Channel

23

a waterway dug across land through which ships can pass

Canal

24

an area of land completely surrounded by water

Island

25

land surrounded by water on all sides but one

Peninsula

26

In at least one paragraph, describe how the rise in factories changed the lives and working environments for some Americans.

First off, people didn't have to be skilled at the job to work. It was less costly to hire workers, so the factory owners benefited greatly. The working environments were good and the owners provided clean lodging for the "mill girls." The labor was split up between lots of different people. The "mill girls" enjoyed their job even though it was six days a week and twelve hours a day. There were some brutal deaths because of the Industrial Revolution and factories, but it was a big step towards a more advanced America.

27

Inventor of the cotton gin and the idea of interchangeable parts

Eli Whitney

28

Changed the way people in the U.S. lived, worked, and traveled

Industrial Revolution

29

The need or want for a good or service by people who are willing to pay for it

Demand

30

The making of goods on a large scale, using machines

Manufacturing

31

Made it easier to separate seeds from fibers; increased the desire for slave labor in the South

Cotton Gin

32

The amount of goods or services available for sale

Supply

33

A road of crushed rock stretching from Maryland to the Ohio River

National Road

34

The system of producing large amounts of goods at one time

Mass Production

35

All stereotypes about the Native Americans were true.

FALSE

36

Railroad construction increased the supply of buffalo

FALSE

37

Which of the following did the Dawes Act attempt to encourage among Native Americans?

Independent farming in each family

38

Plains Indians tribes ruled through

A tribal counsel

39

At the battle of Little Bighorn, Custer’s troops

Were all killed within a matter of 20 minutes by Native Americans

40

“Total love” ensured NA children’s feet never touched the ground as young babies

TRUE

41

The Native Americans only used one method to kill buffalo.

FALSE

42

Could the Native Americans fully assimilate into the white culture? In your opinion, was the government's assimilation policy and reservation a success or failure? Support your opinion with specific information (Treaties, Dawes Act, Life on Reservations, Indian Schools etc.)

The NAs could not become like whites. They had their own traditions and cultures. It was a failure, because the Indians had more wars after that. Also, the whites taught many bad things to Indian school children that went against the Indian culture. The Dawes Act was ultimately a failure.

43

The Homestead Act ensured settlers would find gold on their newly acquired land.

FALSE

44

The Exodusters were

Former slaves from the South who settled on the Great Plains

45

Native Americans believed that land should be held in common

TRUE

46

The Homestead Act required those who claimed land under the act to

Work and cultivate the land for at least 5 years

47

Sand Creek and Wounded Knee are famous for being sites of

U.S. Army massacres of Native Americans

48

This Sioux Chief and medicine man predicted Custer’s defeat

Sitting Bull

49

Assimilation of the Plains Indians was MAINLY intended to

Help them adapt to white culture

50

The policy of treating the Great Plains as one huge reservation changed because?

White settlers began to want land on the Plains and the gold too

51

The shortcut that ran through the Black Hills was called the Bozeman Trail.

TRUE

52

Nomadic Plains Indian tribes

Followed the buffalo herds for all their needs

53

Please answer both parts of this question: 1) Describe the importance of the buffalo to the Plain's Indians' way of life. Be sure to explain how the buffalo was used. 2) How did the settlers impact the buffalo population and how did that impact the Native Americans?

The Indians used every single part of the buffalo. They would use it for most of the things they had. It was used for clothing, food, toys, etc.. The settlers killed 15 million buffalo to put down railroad tracks! That means that the NAs could not make half the stuff they used to make!

54

Which of the following was NOT one of Custer’s flaws at Little Bighorn?

Custer’s only brought 200 men instead of the whole army

Custer did not have the right maps of the region so his men got lost

Custer’s men and horses were exhausted from other battles

Custer underestimated the number of Sioux Indians

Custer did not have the right maps of the region so his men got lost

55

List three Native American stereotypes that we discussed. Be sure to explain why each was not true.

Savages: They are very peaceful tribes.

Heathens: They do care about religion and they do many practices.

Drunks and Laziness: They were certainly not lazy, but very hardworking. They were not drunk either, and the peace pipe did not get them high. They only smoked pleasant herbs and spices from it.

56

Which of the following marked the end of the wars between the federal government and the Plains
Indians?

The Massacre at Wounded Knee

57

France introduced horses to the Native Americans

FALSE

58

What two new discoveries/developments were responsible for attracting white settlers to the West? Explain how each development/discovery impacted the Native Americans. Write in complete sentences and support your answers well.

Gold: They NAs had to move because the Government told them that they would be outlaws if they didn't leave and let whites get the gold.

Homestead Act: The NAs land was put up for sale, and the NAs only got whatever was left, and it was small.

59

Grant followed a strategy of “total war.”

True

60

In at least a paragraph, describe the significance of the Emancipation Proclamation. What was it and what effect did it have on the North and on the South?

The Emancipation Proclamation stated that if the Union won the war all slaves would be free. This encouraged the many african american soldiers to fight even harder to win the war. The South was outraged at this decision.

61

Abolitionists, who were active in the North before the Civil War, believed in what?

doing away with slavery

62

Lincoln was the President during the Civil War era.

True

63

The idea of allowing the people of a territory to decide if it would be slave or free was known as what?

popular sovereignty

64

Which of the following completes the table below about Vicksburg, Mississippi?


Vicksburg, Mississippi
?
Confederate stronghold on the Mississippi River
Its fall split the Confederacy and disrupted trade

Under siege by the North from May to July 1863

65

In the 1860 presidential election, whose name was NOT placed on the presidential candidate ballot in ten southern states?

Lincoln

66

Women were unable to contribute to the war effort.

False

67

Which of the following was one of the many advantages that the North had over the South in the Civil War?

economy was more balanced between manufacturing and farming

68

Frederick Douglas was a well-known military general during the Civil War.

False

69

TRUE or FALSE: Education and literacy of slaves was encouraged in the South.

False

70

In what year did the Civil War end?

1865

71

The first Confederate attack on federal property, which started the Civil War, occurred where?

Fort Sumter, South Carolina

72

Why was the war fought from 1861 to 1865 in the United States called the Civil War?

It was fought by groups within the same country.

73

TRUE or FALSE: "King Cotton" ruled the southern economy.

True

74

Who was the president of the Confederate States of America (CSA) during the Civil War?

Jefferson Davis

75

In the years leading up to the Civil War, free blacks in the South had ____ political rights.

no

76

Under the new Fugitive Slave Act passed in 1850,

Citizens would helped a runaway slave could be imprisoned

77

At the end of the Civil War, General ____ surrendered to General Ulysses S. Grant at the town of Appomattox Court House in Virginia.

Robert E. Lee

78

Ulysses Grant was a Confederate general.

False

79

TRUE or FALSE: To "secede" means to break away.

True

80

John Wilkes Booth, who assassinated President Lincoln, was a supporter of which of the following?

the South and secession

81

The Dred Scott v. Sandford Supreme Court decision in 1857 reinforced the idea that slaves had no political rights because they were considered to be which of the following?

mere property

82

The presence of the Underground Railroad had the effect of ____ the North and South before the Civil War.

dividing

83

During the Civil War, why was the city of Vicksburg so difficult for the North to capture?

It was situated high on a bluff.

84

The price of field slaves in the United States quadrupled during the first half of the nineteenth century, largely because of the expansion of what plantation crop?

cotton

85

The Confederacy had the advantage of fighting on mostly its own ground.

True

86

The Battle of Gettysburg is best known as a Confederate victory.

False

87

No African Americans fought during the Civil War

False

88

Under the Kansas-Nebraska Act, how was the issue of slavery to be decided in new Western states?

by a vote of their citizens

89

What Civil War leader fits the descriptions in the table below?

?
• Had little military experience
• Appointed Grant as Union Army commander after a series of poor generals
• Favored a moderate reconstruction policy for the South after the war

Abraham Lincoln

90

Which of the following early Reconstruction measures directly contributed to the education of former slaves?

the Freedman’s Bureau

91

Public education in the South was one of Reconstruction’s successes.

True

92

The correct term for a white southern Republican is

scalawag

93

During the 1870s, the public lost confidence in many governmental officials due to corruption.

True

94

Which Amendment is this?
"All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside. No State shall...deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person...the equal protection of the laws."

14th Amendment

95

White women gained the right to vote with African American males.

False

96

Which Amendment is this?
"Neither slavery nor involutnary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the [person] shall have been dulyu convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction [legal authority]."

13th Amendment

97

Why did sharecroppers become trapped in a cycle of poverty?

They did not earn enough cash to pay their debts.

98

The Supreme Court was left to interpret how the Reconstruction Amendments should be applied.

True

99

How did MOST freedmen meet their basic needs after the Civil War ended?

They worked pieces of land through an arrangement called sharecropping.

100

The correct term for a person who rented and farmed a peice of land is

sharecropper

101

How did members of Congress react to the black codes?

Outraged Republicans vowed to develop a stricter Reconstruction plan

102

What was Reconstruction, and during what years did it take place? What events marked its beginning and end?

1865-1877

After the Civil War, the North and South were trying to join back together. The beginning, was, of course, after the Civil War. It ended in governmental corruption.

103

Which of the following completes the table below?

Johnson's Plan

104

Why did southern states agree to ratify the Thirteenth Amendment?

Ratification of the amendment helped their states win presidential approval to rejoin the Union

105

Which Amendment is this?
"The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged [reduced] by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude."

15th Amendment

106

To rejoin the Union after the Civil War, Confederate states had to meet certain requirements. One required them to ratify a constitutional amendment that granted citizenship to all people born in the United States. What amendment was this?

14

107

The correct term for a northerner who went to the South after the Civil War is

carpetbagger

108

What was Abraham Lincoln’s approach to Reconstruction after the Civil War?

He would welcome the South back into the Union.

109

Thomas Nast is known as the Father of the American political cartoon.

True

110

Reconstruction was a process that occurred ____ the Civil War.

after

111

Southern states never attempted to reestablish the conditions from before the Civil War.

False

112

The correct term for someone who was a former slave is

freedman

113

What provision did the Compromise of 1850 include?

California would be admitted as a free state

114

Abolitionists believed that slavery

was morally wrong and wanted to end it

115

TRUE or FALSE: Factories in the South created an established middle class.

False

116

How did northerners and southerners view slavery?

The Northerners viewed slavery as morally wrong and there were few Northerners who supported it. The South supported large plantations, which meant lots of work for slaves. Therefore, you can just think that many Southerners supported slavery.

117

TRUE or FALSE: To "secede" means to break away.

True

118

TRUE or FALSE: Education and literacy of slaves was encouraged in the South.

False