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Flashcards in FINAL EXAM Deck (151)
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1

It is impossible for sperm to be functional (able to fertilize the egg) until after

they undergo capacitation

2

Milk ejection (the letdown reflex) is stimulated by which of the following hormones associated with pregnancy?

Oxytocin

3

The corpus luteum prevents loss of the implanted enbryo through menstruation by secreting

estrogens and progesterone

4

Proteases and acrosin are enzymes. How do they function in reproduction?

They act to break down the protective barriers around the egg, allowing the sperm to penetrate.

5

Which hormone maintains the viability of the corpus luteum?

human chorionic gonadotropin

6

Which of the following is NOT a correct matching of a fetal structure with what it becomes at birth?
A) foramen ovale--> fossa ovalis
B) ductus venosus--> ligamentum venosum
C) ductus arteriosus-->ligamentum teres
d) umbilical arteries--> medial and umbilical ligaments

C) ductus arteriosus-->ligamentum teres

7

During the secretory phase of the menstrual cycle progesterone levels...

... are at their highest

8

Select the correct statement abut the uterine cycle.
A) During the scretory phase, estrogen levels are at their highest
B) The menstrual phase of the cycle is normally from day 1 to day 8
C) During the proliferative phase, levels of progesterone rise as the follicle begins to produce more hormone.
D) If fertilization occurs, the corpus luteum is maintained by a hormone secreted by the developing embryo.

D) If fertilization occurs, the corpus luteum is maintained by a hormone secreted by the developing embryo.

9

Which of the choices below is not part of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis?
A) thalamus
B) hypothalamus
C) anterior pituitary
D) interstitial cells

A) thalamus

10

Normally menstruation occurs when...

... blood levels of estrogen and progesterone decrease

11

The basic difference between spermatogenesis and oogenesis is that.

In oogenesis, one mature ovum is produced, and in spermatogenesis four mature sperm are produced from the parent cell

12

Which one of the following will occur after ovulation?
A) The corpus luteum prepares to become a corpus albicans
B) The endometrium enters its secretory phase
C) The corpus luteum secretes estrogen only
D) The secretion of anterior pituitary gonadotropins in enhanced.

B) The endometrium enters its secretory phase

13

The period from fertilization through week eight is called the embryonic period

TRUE

14

Fertilization occurs while the egg is still in the ovarian follicle

FALSE

15

Freshly deposited sperm are not immediately capable of penetrating an oocyte

TRUE

16

Implantation begins six to seven days after ovulation

TRUE

17

A pregnancy test involves antibodies that detect growth hormone (GH) levels in a woman's blood or urine

FALSE

18

A pregnant women urinates more often than usual because the uterus compresses the bladder, her metabolic rate and blood volume are increased, and she must also dispose of fetal metabolic wastes

TRUE

19

The "fluid-filled, hollow ball of cells" stage of development is the blastocyst

TRUE

20

The embryonic period lasts until the end of the eighth week

TRUE

21

In fetal circulation, one way in which blood bypasses the non-functional lungs is by way of the foramen ovale

TRUE

22

The placenta and its attached fetal membranes are collectively called afterbirth

TRUE

23

Human placental lactogen initiates labor

FALSE

24

A blastocyst is a hollow ball of cells, while the morula is a solid ball of cell.

TRUE

25

A zygote is usually formed within the uterus

FALSE

26

Prolonged hyperventilation can cause alkalosis

TRUE

27

Thirst is always a reliable indicator of body water need.

FALSE

28

Blood acidity results in depression of the CNS, whereas blood alkalosis results in overexcitement of the CNS

TRUE

29

The term hypotonic hydration refers to

a condition that may result in renal insufficiency of drinking extraordinary amounts of water

30

When ADH levels are low

most of the water reaching the collecting ducts is not reabsorbed

31

Which hormone is important in the regulation of sodium ion concentrations in the extracellular fluid

aldosterone

32

Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) is a hormone that is made in the atria of the heart. The influence of this hormone is to

reduce bloop pressure and blood volume by inhibiting sodium and water retention

33

Respiratory acidosis can occur when
A) a runner has completed a very long marathon
B) a person consumes excessive amounts of antacids
C) the kidneys secrete hydrogen ions
D) a person's breathing is shallow due to obstruction

D) a person's breathing is shallow due to obstruction

34

An illness causes Doug to experience severe diarrhea and an accompanying loss of bicarbonate-rich secretions. How can this metabolic acidosis be compensated?

increased respiratory rate and depth

35

A boy who has not passed puberty sustains an injury to his anterior pituitary such that FSH is no longer released, but LH is normal. After he grows to maturity, one would expect that he would

be unable to produce viable sperm

36

Which of the following statements about the female reproductive process is not true?
A) Rebudding of the endometrium is under the control of prolactin
B) The monthly discharge of the uterus (menses) is initiated by the decrease in secretion of female hormones
C) Ovulation usually occurs 14 days after the beginning of menses
D) Fertilization usually occurs in the fallopian tube

A) Rebudding of the endometrium is under the control of prolactin

37

A low secretion of LH in the normal male adult would cause

decreased testosterone secretion

38

All of the following statements referring to the uterine cycle are true except
A) The CL is formed by the ruptured follicle after ovulation
B) FSH and LH directly promote development of the uterine endometrium
C) A decrease in the levels of ovarian hormones signals menstuation
D) Estrogen is secreted by the developing follicle in the follicular phase of the cycle

B) FSH and LH directly promote development of the uterine endometrium

39

Which of the following phases or processes in the monthly reproductive cycle of the female occur simultaneously?

regression of the CL and a decrease in ovarian progesterone secretion

40

The duct system of the male reproductive system includes all but which of the following?
A) Epididymis
B) Ductus deferens
C) urethra
D) Corpus spongiosum

D) Corpus spongiosum

41

How do the testes respond to excessive body warmth?

They move away from the pelvic cavity

42

Effects of estrogen include
A) Growth of the larynx
B) Deepening of the voice
C) Growth of the breasts at puberty
D) Increased oiliness of the skin

C) Growth of the breasts at puberty

43

Secretion of progesterone stimulates
A) Contraction of uterine muscles
B) Development of the female secondary sex characteristics
C) Preparation of the mammary glands for lactation
D) Proliferation of the uterine myometrium

C) Preparation of the mammary glands for lactation

44

Which of the following occurs as a result of undescended testes?
A) Inadequate blood supply will retard the development of the testes
B) Inadequate or non-viable sperm will be produced
C) Sperm will have no means of exit from the body
D) Male sex hormones will not be circulated in the body

B) Inadequate or non-viable sperm will be produced

45

Which of the choices below is not a function of the vagina?
A) Serves as the birth canal
B) receives semen from the penis during sexual intercourse
C) Serves as a passageway for menstrual flow
D) Serves as a passageway for the primary oocyte

D) Serves as a passageway for the primary oocyte

46

Which of the choices below is not a function of testosterone?
A) stimulates the male pattern of development
B) Stimulates protein synthesis
C) Contributes to male sexual behaviour and spermatogenesis
D) stimulates mammary gland development

D) stimulates mammary gland development

47

Which male hormone inhibits the secretion of FSH?

inhibin

48

Which of the following is NOT a trigger for juxtaglomerular granular cells to release renin?
A) increased extracellular fluid water levels
B) sympathetic stimulation
C) decreased stretch of the granular cells of the afferent arterioles
D) decreased filtrate NaCl concentration

A) increased extracellular fluid water levels

49

Which of the following hormones functions to increase water reabsorption by inserting aquaporins into the principal cell apical membranes?

ADH

50

The maintenance of the proper pH of the body fluids may be the result of

the control of respiratory ventilation

51

The regulation of sodium

is linked to blood pressure

52

Blood analysis indicates a low pH, and the patient is breathing rapidly.

metabolic acidosis

53

A patient is breathing slowly and blood pH analysis indicates an abnormally high value

metabolic alkalosis

54

The single most important factor influencing potassium ion secretion is

potassium ion concentration in extracellular fluid

55

The term alkaline reserve is used to describe the

bicarbonate buffer system

56

A falling blood pH and a rising partial pressure of carbon dioxide due t pneumonia or emphysema indicates

respiratory acidosis

57

What hormone reduces blood pressure and blood volume by inhibiting nearly all events that promote vasoconstriction and sodium ion an water retention?

atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP)

58

Which of the following is NOT a method for regulating the hydrogen ion concentration in blood?
A) Chemical buffers
B) renal mechanisms
C) respiratory changes
D) diet

D) diet

59

Which of the following is not a chemical buffer system
A) Phosphate
B) bicarbonate
C) protein
D) nucleic acid

D) nucleic acid

60

All but one of the following statements are true regarding the differences between early and late spermatids. Select the answer below that does not reflect a difference between early and late spermatids.
A) Early spermatids are round and have excess cytoplasm.
B) Early spermatids have not undergone meiosis and are still diploid
C) early spermatids have not undergone spermiogenesis
D) early spermatids have not formed a flagella

B) Early spermatids have not undergone meiosis and are still diploid

61

All of the following events described below occur during spermiogenesis. Select the statement that does not occur during spermiogenesis.
A) The centrioles migrate to the posterior end on the developing sperm to form the microtubules that make up the flagellum
B) Mitochondral DNA is packaged into the nucleus to be delivered to the egg during fertilization
C) Excessive cytoplasm will be shed arounf the proximal end of the flagellum. They will provide the ATP to drive the motion of the flagellum

B) Mitochondral DNA is packaged into the nucleus to be delivered to the egg during fertilization

62

All but one of the statements is true with regard to the blood testis barrier. Select the one that is false.
A) The barrier is made up of astrocytes that surround blood vessels in the testis
B) The barrier marks the border between the basal compartment and the adluminal compartment
C) The barrier separates the spermatocytes dividing by meiosis from exposing their unique antigens to the immune system
D) Sustentocytes for the barrier with tight junctions

A) The barrier is made up of astrocytes that surround blood vessels in the testis

63

All but one of the statements is true of uterine function. Select the statement that is not true of uterine function
A) The endometrium has a functional layer that the embryo will implant into
B) Its rhythmic, reverse peristalsis can propel sperm toward the egg
C) The narrow portion of the uterus near the cervix is the most typical site of fertilization
D) The myometrium contracts to expel the fetus during childbirth

C) The narrow portion of the uterus near the cervix is the most typical site of fertilization

64

The dartos and cremaster muscles are important to the integrity of the male reproductive system. Which of the following is true about the role they play?
A) They regulate the temperature of the testes
B) They contract to allow ejaculation
C) They contract to push sperm along the ductus deferens
D) They are responsible for penile erection

A) They regulate the temperature of the testes

65

The ability of sperm cells to move along the ductus deferens is due to

peristaltic contractions

66

When adosterone release is inhibited, sodium reabsorption cannot occur beyond the distal covoluted tubule

TRUE

67

Aldosterone stimulates the reabsorption of sodium while enhancing potassium secretion

TRUE

68

Some potassium ions are reabsorbed by the kidney fitrate via type A intercalated cells, a unique population of collecting duct cells

TRUE

69

Aldosterone is secreted in response to low extracellular potassium

FALSE

70

To remain properly hydrated, water intake must equal water output

TRUE

71

The main way the kidney regulates potassium ions is to excrete them

TRUE

72

Atrial natriuretic peptide reduces blood pressure and blood volume by inhibiting nearly all events that promote vasodilation and potassium and water retention

FALSE

73

Heavy consumption of salt substitutes high in potassium can present a serious clinical problem when aldosterone release is not normal

TRUE

74

The 2 hormones responsible for the regulation of calcium are pituitary hormone and calcitonin

FALSE

75

Calcitonin targets the bones and causes the release of calcium from storage when serum levels are low

FALSE

76

The normal pH of blood is 7.35-7.45

TRUE

77

THe phosphate buffer is relatively unimportant for buffering blood plasma

TRUE

78

The single most important blood buffer system is the bicarbonate buffer system

TRUE

79

Respiratory acidosis results when lungs are obstructed and gas exchange is inefficient

TRUE

80

The testis is divided into semineferous tubules which contain the lobules that produce sperm and the ejaculatory duct that allows the sperm to be ejected from the body

FALSE

81

THe smaller cell produced by oogenesis I, called the first polar body, is essentially a packet of discarded nuclear material

TRUE

82

A human egg or sperm contains 23 pairs of chromosomes

FALSE

83

Ovulation occurs near the end of the ovarian cycle

FALSE

84

The CL secretes progesterone only

FALSE

85

The primary function of the testis is to produced testosterone

FALSE

86

The stage in meiosis where chromosomal exchange takes place is telophase

FALSE

87

The testes are innervated by the sympathetic division of the ANS only

FALSE

88

The soft mucosal lining of the uterus is the endomertrium

TRUE

89

A scrotal muscle that contracts in response to cold environment is the cremaster

TRUE

90

The secretions of the bulbourethral glands neutralize traces of acidic urine in the urethra and serve as a lubricant during sexual intercourse

TRUE

91

The zona pellucida is formed as the follicle becomes a secondary follicle

TRUE

92

The molecule that enhances the ability of testosterone to promote spermatogenesis is inhibin

FALSE

93

Sperm are ejaculated from the corpora cavernosa of the penis

FALSE

94

Spermatogenesis

involves a kind of cell division limited to the gametes

95

The hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis

involves FSH and LH release

96

Select the correct answer about testosterone control
A) Inhibin and testosterone exert positive feedback on the hypothalamus and pituitary
B) FSH stimulates testicular production of tetosterone
C) The pineal gland is believed to be the gland that exerts the most influence in testosterone control
D) GnRH from the hypothalamus causes FSH and LH release from the anterior pituitary

D) GnRH from the hypothalamus causes FSH and LH release from the anterior pituitary

97

Which of the following is a correct statement about the uterine tubes?
A) The infundibulum is the funnel-shaped region near the ovary
B) The isthmus is the normal site of fertilization
C) The mesometrium supports the uterine tubes along their entire length
D) The ampulla is the narrow constricted region

A) The infundibulum is the funnel-shaped region near the ovary

98

Select the correct statement about the hormonal events of the ovarian cycle

High estrogen levels results in a surge of LH release

99

Which of the following statements about spermatogenesis is not true?
A) Each spermatid forms 2 sperm
B) The secondary spermatocytes each form 2 spermatids
C) The spermatogonium forms the primary spermatocyte
D) The primary spermatocyte forms 2 secondary spermatocyte

A) Each spermatid forms 2 sperm

100

It is necessary for the testes to be kept below body temperature for abundant, viable sperm formation

TRUE

101

When a couple is having difficulty conceiving a child, it is necessary to investigate the sperm of the male

TRUE

102

THe amount of testosterone and sperm produced by the testes is dependent on the influence of FSH alone

FALSE

103

Ovarian follicles contain mature eggs

FALSE

104

One of the major physiological factors that triggers thirst is

A rise in plasma osmolarity

105

Annie has just eaten a large order of heavily salted French fries, some picked eggs, and some cheese. How will consuming this much salt affect her physiology?

There will be a temporary increase in blood volume

106

Mary finds that she regularly retains water at a certain point in the menstrual cycle. Which of the following is chemically similar to aldosterone, and like aldosterone, enhances NaCl reabsorption in the renal tubules?

Estrogen

107

Nancy is experiencing an acute panic attack. While hyperventilating, she remembers to open a paper bag and breathe into it. What is Nancy trying to prevent?

Respiratory alkalosis

108

If the thyroid and parathyroid glands are surgically removed, which of the following would go out of balance without replacement therapy?
A) Anion levels
B) Sodium levels
C) Calcium ion levels
D) Potassium ion levels

Calcium ion levels

109

Falling arterial blood pressure promotes

Vasoconstriction

110

A uterine test reveals a positive result for human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). This indicates " " was successful

Implantation

111

As the infant's head is forced against the cervix with each contraction, the cervix effaces, which means that it

THINS

112

In the block to polyspermy, entry of sperm's contents causes " " levels in the oocyte's cytoplasm to rise, triggering the cortical reaction

calcium ion

113

The most abundant cation in the intracellular fluid is sodium

FALSE

114

Solutes, regardless of size, are able to move freely between compartments because water carries them along the osmotic gradients

FALSE

115

The thirst center in the brain is located in the hypothalamus

TRUE

116

Dehydration can be caused by endocrine disturbances such as diabetes mellitus or diabetes insipidus

TRUE

117

It is impossible to overhydrate because people need as much water as they can drink to carry out ordinary body functions

FALSE

118

Water imbalance, in which output exceeds intake, causing an imbalance in body fluids, is termed dehydration

TRUE

119

Salts are lost from the body in perspiration, and urine only

FALSE

120

Excessive loss of water from the ECF leads to a rise in osmotic pressure in the ECF which causes cells to shrink as water leaves by osmosis.

TRUE

121

Although the sodium content of the body may be altered, its concentation in the ECF remains relatively stable because of immediate adjustments in water volume

TRUE

122

Sodium is pivotal to fluid and electrolyte imbalance and to the homeostasis of all body systems

TRUE

123

During which stage of labor is the fetus delivered?

Expulsion stage

124

Which of the following is true in reference to what may pass through the placental barriers?
A) hormones, blood cells and nutrients
B) nutrients and respiratory gases only
C) respiratory gases, hormones, nutrients and blood cells
D) nutrients, respiratory gases, wastes, and alcohol

D) nutrients, respiratory gases, wastes, and alcohol

125

Which of the following is NOT usually considered a teratogen?
A) German measles
B) nicotine
C) aspirin
D) wine

C) aspirin

126

Which of the following occurs if implantation is successful?

The CL is maintained until the placenta takes over its hormone-producing functions

127

Select the correct statement about the special fetal blood vessels
A) The distal parts of the umbilical arteries from the superior vesical arteries
B) The umbilical vein becomes the ligamentum teres.
C) The hepatic portal vein forms the umbilical artery
D) The fossa ovalis becomes the foramen ovale

B) The umbilical vein becomes the ligamentum teres.

128

At what point is meiosis II completed for the female gamete?

fertilization

129

Shortly after implantation

the trophoblast forms 2 distinct layers

130

The trophoblast is mostly responsible for forming the

placental tissue

131

The cardiovascular system of a newborn must be adjusted after the infant takes its first breath. Which of the following is also true?
A) The ductus arteriosus constricts and is converted to the ligamentum arteriosum
B) The urinary system is activated at birth
C) The foramen ovale between the atria of the fetal heart closes at the moment of birth
D) The ductus venosus is disconnected

A) The ductus arteriosus constricts and is converted to the ligamentum arteriosum

132

Sperm move to the uterine tube through uterine contractions and the energy of their own flagella. What other factor is involved in sperm movement?

reverse peristalsis of the uterus and uterine tubes

133

At what stage of labor is the "afterbirth" expelled?
A) placental
B) expulsion
C) dystocia
D) full dilation

A) placental

134

Which hormone is NOT produced by the placenta?

oxytocin

135

Which body system of a pregnant woman undergoes the most dramatic physiological changes during pregnancy?
A) respiratory system
B) urinary system
C) digestive system
D) cardiovascular system

D) cardiovascular system

136

Thalidomide was once used to treat intense nausea and morning sickness in pregnant women. Unfortunately, if administered at certain points during gestation it resulted in limb malformation. This drug is an example of a(n)

teratogen

137

The correct sequence of preembryonic structures is

zygote, morula, blastocyst

138

Prior to the let-down reflex, the mammary glands secrete a yellowish fluid called " " that has less lactose than milk and almost no fat

colostrum

139

How long is the secondary oocyte viable and capable of being fertilized after it is ovulated

12-24 hours

140

Select the correct statement about fertilization
A) If estrogen is present, the pathway through the cervical opening is blocked from sperm entry
B) Both spermatozoa and the ovulated secondary oocyte remain viable for about 72 hours in the female reproductive tract
C) Once inside the uterus, most sperm cells are protected and remain viable
D) Millions of sperm cells are destroyed by the vagina's acidic environment

D) Millions of sperm cells are destroyed by the vagina's acidic environment

141

Which of the following is NOT an essential role of salts in the body?
A) Anabolism of lipids
B) secretory activity
C) Neuromuscular activity
D) membrane permeability

A) Anabolism of lipids

142

Which of the choices below exerts primary control over sodium levels in the body?
A) Glucocorticoids
B) Aldosterone
C) Water levels
D) ADH

B) Aldosterone

143

The fluid link between the external and internal environment is

plasma

144

In a car accident, Jane suffered a chest injury that resulted in impaired breathing and respiratory acidosis. How will her body compensate for this imbalance?

kidneys retain bicarbonate ions

145

Whereas sodium if found mainly in the extracellular fluid, most " " is found in the intracellular fluid

Potassium

146

Which of the following describes the distribution of sodium and potassium between cells and body fluids?

K+ mainly in the cells, Na+ in the body fluids

147

Which of the following glands are responsible for 70% of the synthesis of semen?

the seminal vesicles

148

Which of the following hormones controls the release of anterior pituitary gonadotropins?
A) LH
B) GnRH
c) testosterone
d) FSH

B) GnRH

149

The structures that receive the ovulated oocyte, providing a site for fertilization, are called the

fallopian tubes

150

Human egg and sperm are similar in that

they have the same number of chromosomes

151

Fertilization generally occurs in the

fallopian tubes