What is the ultimate objective of the financial management function in a profit-oriented entity?
The ultimate objective of financial management is to maximize the value of the entity, usually as reflected by the market price for the firm's stock.
Identify some of the responsibilities of the financial management function of an entity.
1. Managing the capital and financial structure of the entity; 2. Planning, allocating and controlling an entity's financial resources; 3. Identifying and managing financial risks faced by the entity.
Define "unexpired cost."
An asset; it has future value to the entity (e.g., the cost of a 3-year insurance policy would be an asset during the period covered).
Define "opportunity cost."
Benefit lost from an opportunity as a result of choosing another opportunity. It is measured as the discounted value of the cash flow or other benefit foregone and is relevant in making current decisions.
Define "cost" as used in accounting.
Amount paid or obligation incurred for a good or service; may be unexpired or expired. An unexpired cost is an asset. An expired cost is an expense.
How is a firm's cost of capital determined?
It is the rate of return that must be earned by prospective investors in order for a firm to attract and retain their investments. Investors' expected rate of return is determined primarily by the rate of return that could be earned on other opportunities with comparable risk.
Define "weighted-average cost of capital."
Cost of each element of capital weighted by the proportion (percentage) of total capital provided by each element, with the resulting products summed to get the weighted average cost for all elements of capital.
Define "differential cost."
Costs which are different between two or more alternatives. Differential costs are relevant in making decisions between the alternatives. For example: In deciding whether or not to accept a special order for a product, only the new costs that would be incurred in accepting the order would be relevant. Fixed costs that would not change whether or not the order is accepted would not be relevant.
Define "sunk cost."
Costs incurred in the past that cannot be changed by current or future decisions and, therefore, are irrelevant to current decisions.
What are the major elements of a firm's capital (or capital structure)?
Long-term debt, Preferred stock and Common stock.
Define "expired cost."
The benefit to an entity from the good or service that has been used up and is of no future value to the entity. An expired cost is an expense (.e.g., cost of wages and salaries) or a loss (e.g., cost of goods destroyed by fire).
Define the "future value" of an annuity.
Value at some future date of a series of equal amounts to be invested at the beginning of equal intervals over some period of time. Amount that will accumulate as a result of the amounts invested at the beginning of each period and the compounding of interest on those amounts.
Define the "future value" of $1.
Value at some future date of a single amount invested now. Amount that will accumulate as a result of compounding of interest on the single amount invested at the present.
Define an "annuity due (also called an annuity in advance)".
Series of equal amounts received or paid at the beginning of each equal period.
Define the "present value" of an ordinary annuity.
Value now of a series of equal amounts to be received at the end of equal intervals over some future period Equal amounts to be received at the end of a number of equal periods are discounted using an interest rate to get the present value of those amounts.
Define the "present value" of $1.
Value now (at present) of a single amount to be received in the future. Amount to be received in the future is discounted using an interest rate to get the present value of that amount.
Define "future value" of an ordinary annuity.
Value at some future date of a series of equal amounts to be invested at the end of equal intervals over some period of time. Amount that will accumulate as a result of the amounts invested at the end of each period and the compounding of interest on those amounts.
Define an "ordinary annuity (also called an annuity in arrears)".
Series of equal amounts received or paid at the end of each equal period.
Define "compound interest".
Interest computed not only on the principal but also on any accumulated unpaid interest (i.e., interest is paid on interest).
Define "effective interest rate".
1. The annual interest rate implicit in the relationship between the net proceeds of a borrowing (or other arrangement) and the dollar cost of the borrowing (or other arrangement). 2. Computed as: Dollar cost of borrowing/Net proceeds of borrowing.
Define a "fixed interest rate".
The percentage rate of interest does not change over the life of the loan or parts of that life.
Define "simple interest".
Interest computed on the principal only; there is no compounding in the interest computation (i.e., no interest paid on interest).
Define a "variable interest rate".
The percentage rate of interest can change over the life of the related debt instrument.
Define "effective annual percentage rate" (also called the "annual percentage yield").
Annual percentage rate with compounding on loans that are for a fraction of a year.
Cost of the use of money. Expressed as a percentage rate, almost always as an annual percentage rate, applied to the principal to determine dollar amount.
Define "annual percentage rate (APR)".
1. The annualized effective interest rate (without compounding) on loans that are for a fraction of a year. In effect, the effective interest rate for a portion of a year is "grossed up" to an annual rate. 2. Computed as the effective interest rate for the fraction of a year multiplied by the number of such fractions in a whole year. 3. Basis of interest rate disclosure in U.S.
Define "stated rate (of interest)" (also used interchangeably as "nominal rate" or "quoted rate").
The annual rate of interest specified in a debt instrument or other contract/agreement; it does not take into account the compound effects of payment frequency.
How is "fair value" defined and determined for United States Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) purposes?
Fair value for United States Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) purposes is the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants.
Identify and briefly describe the three approaches to determining fair value as specified by United States Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP).
1. Market approach: Information generated by market transactions for identical or similar items. 2. Income approach: Converts future amounts of benefit or sacrifice to determine current value. 3. Cost approach: Determines the amount required to acquire or construct a comparable item.
What are some of the factors that must be considered in assigning value?
The following factors must be considered in assigning value: 1. The specific item or items (asset, liability, equity, etc.) being valued; 2. The condition of the item(s); 3. The location of the item(s); 4. The time at which the valuation is occurring; 5. The economic environment in which the valuation is occurring.