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Flashcards in Financial Reporting Deck (56):
1

What is the primary objective of accounting?

To measure income

2

What is the most authoritative set of accounting pronouncements?

The FASB Codification

All pronouncements fall under the Codification umbrella

3

What are the 2 Levels of Authority within the FASB codification?

Authoritative and Non-Authoritative

4

How does managerial accounting differ from financial accounting?

Managerial Accounting has a timeliness focus

Managerial Accounting is not required to follow GAAP

5

Which financial reports are required to be filed with the SEC?

Form 10K - Annual and Audited
Form 10Q - Quarterly and Reviewed

6

What is the focus of financial reports for individual companies?

Focus is on the needs of users to help them make decisions and assessments about the company

Does not make assessments of the economy

7

What are the Primary Constraints of Financial Reporting?

Cost vs. Benefit

Materiality

8

What are the Secondary Constraints of Financial Reporting?

Consistency - Year vs. Year

Comparability - Company vs. Company

9

What are the Qualitative Characteristics of Financial Reporting?

Relevance & Faithful Representation

Relevance - Makes a difference to the user
Includes:
Predictive Value - Future Trends
Confirming Value - Past Predictions
Materiality - Could affect User Decisions

Faithful Representation
Includes:
Completeness - Nothing omitted that would impact the decision-making of a user
Neutrality - Information is presented is without bias
Free from Error - No material errors or omissions


10

What are the Enhancing Qualitative Characteristics of Financial Reporting?

Comparability Verifiability Timeliness and Understandability

Comparability - Allows users to compare different items among various periods
Verifiability - Different people would reach a similar conclusion on the information presented
Timeliness - Information is made available early enough to impact the decision making of users
Understandability - Information is easy to understand

11

How does Conservatism affect the recording of accounting transactions?

When an estimate is necessary due to uncertainty conservatism chooses the best option that won't overstate the financial position of the company

12

What is an accrual?

Earned (Revenue) or Incurred (Expense) but no Cash Receipt/Outlay yet

13

What is a deferral?

Cash Receipt/Outlay but not Earned (Revenue) or Incurred (Expense)

14

What is recognition in accounting?

When an item is recorded and included in the financial statements

15

Describe fair value with respect to an asset

The price you would receive if you sold the asset

Assumes asset is at its highest and best value

Assumes asset is sold at its most advantageous market to get the best price possible

16

What market assumptions are made in a fair value assessment?

Buyer and Seller are not Related

Buyer and Seller are Knowledgeable

Buyer and Seller are able to transact - i.e. This isn't a hypothetical transaction for Fair Value measurement purposes. The buyer actually does have the $10M to purchase the asset you're trying to value at $10M

Buyer and Seller are both motivated to buy/sell

17

What items are included in a Level 1 input in the fair value hierarchy?

Price quotes or market prices

For example NYSE or NASDAQ

18

What items are included in a Level 2 valuation input?

Interest rates

Prime rate

19

What items are included in Level 3 inputs of the fair value hierarchy?

Unobservable inputs such as assumptions or forecasts

Lowest priority for valuation

20

What are acceptable valuation techniques for fair value?

Market approach - uses market transactions and prices to value the asset

Income approach - uses present value discounts earnings

Cost approach - uses replacement cost to value the asset

21

What are current assets?

Cash

Inventory or Assets expected to be converted or consumed during a business' operating cycle

Deferred Gross Profit on Installment Sales (Contra Asset)

Receivables expected to be collected in 12 months or less

22

What are current liabilities?

Liabilities that will use current assets during the present operating cycle

23

What is an accrued liability?

Expense that has been incurred but not paid

Example: rents payable

24

What is a deferred revenue?

A type of current liability

Payments that have been received but cannot be recorded as revenue yet

Example: Tenant pre-pays rent - Landlord still must perform to earn it and is a liability until this happens

25

When are revenues recognized?

When they have been earned; i.e. company has performed

26

What is a gain?

Increase in equity from an activity or event that is not central to the main activities of the business

Can be operating or non-operating

27

What is a loss?

Decrease in equity from an activity or event that is not central to the main activities of the business

Can be operating or non-operating

28

What is an operating cycle?

Average time it takes to turn materials or services into Cash

29

What is the present value of future cash flows?

Valuation method - the current value of a future amount of money using a specific interest rate

30

What is historical cost?

How much an asset cost - (net of depreciation and amortization)

31

What is replacement cost?

How much it would cost to reacquire an asset today (Entrance Cost)

32

What is a market cost?

The sale price of an asset (Exit Cost)

33

What is Net Realizable Value?

Sale Price of an Asset - Selling/Disposal Fee

34

When is royalty income recognized? How is it recognized?

Recognized when earned

If the royalty % is applied against net sales then subtract the estimated return amount from the gross sales first and then apply the royalty rate

35

When is revenue recognized in an installment sale?

Revenue recognized upon receipt of cash

Only used when cash collection is uncertain

36

What is deferred gross profit?

Gross Profit that can't be recognized until cash is received

D.GP : Gross Profit % x Accounts Receivable

Pay attention to the year if GP% varies

37

What is the cost recovery method?

No revenue recognized until all costs are recovered from purchase of the asset

Most conservative method of revenue recognition when collection of sale price is uncertain

38

What is subscription revenue? How is it recorded?

Payment has been received but performance is not complete.

As company performs revenue is recognized.

Recorded as a Deferred Revenue (Liability) on Balance Sheet

39

How are franchise revenues recorded?

Franchisor - Startup franchise fee revenue deferred until substantial performance

Franchisee - Costs are deferred until corresponding revenue is recognized

40

How do you calculate sales revenue starting from cash basis income?

Mnemonic: SPEAR-BAR

Sales (i.e. Customer Payments)
+ Ending Accounts Receivable
- Beginning Accounts Receivable
: Sales Revenue on an Accrual Basis

41

How do you calculate COGS starting from Cash Basis?

Mnemonic: CRAP-I

Cash Remitted (i.e. paid)
+Increase in Accounts Payable
-Increase in Inventory
:COGS on an Accrual Basis

42

How are discontinued operations reported? When are they used?

Reported Net of Tax after Continuing Operations but before Extraordinary Items

Company decides to cease operating a segment of its business

Includes Income (or loss) from the period plus the gain (or loss) from disposal

43

What qualifies as an extraordinary item? How is it recorded?

Both unusual AND infrequent

Reported Net of Tax after Discontinued Operations

Note: Usual *or* Infrequent Items are reported as part of Continuing Operations

44

What is constant dollar accounting?

Adjusts assets to reflect a consistent level of purchasing power due to inflation

Uses the Consumer Price Index (CPI)

45

When are expenses recognized?

When they are incurred. Accrue if not yet paid.

46

What are accrued expenses?

Those incurred but not paid.

Product costs - Expenses should be matched with associated revenues as they are recognized (sales commission on a used car sale)

Period costs - Expenses amortized and recognized with the passage of time

47

When should impaired assets be written down to fair value and expensed?

Immediately.

48

What major items should be classified under General & Administrative (G&A) expenses?

Office staff salaries

Office/building rent

Office supplies

Note: Sales staff salaries and portions of the building assigned to Sales should be allocated to Selling Expense not G&A

49

What are business start-up costs?

One-time costs for opening a new business

Expensed as they are incurred

50

When is interest *not* expensed?

Interest on projects (software) for internal use is not expensed but is instead capitalized

51

What are the major components of Comprehensive Income?

Net Income + Other Comprehensive Income (OCI):

Revenues/Expenses

Gains/Losses

Cumulative accounting adjustments

Reclassifications adjustments

Non-owner changes in equity

52

What items are considered cumulative accounting adjustments?

Foreign Currency Translation Adjustments

Unrealized gains on AFS Securities

Minimum Pension Liability adjustment for defined benefit plans

53

What is the purpose of a reclassification adjustment?

Avoids double counting items that were included in both Net Income and OCI

Example: AFS Securities previously included in OCI are now sold at a loss and reported on the Income Statement

54

Where is Comprehensive Income reported?

Reported in a Single or Combined Income Statement

55

What disclosures on accounting policies are required in financial statements?

Accounting Principles used

Basis of Consolidation

Inventory Pricing Methods

Depreciation Method

Amortization of Intangibles

56

What are some major risks and uncertainties that must be disclosed?

Nature of Operations

Use of Estimates and listing of Significant Estimates

Concentration vulnerability