Flashcards in Financial Reporting Deck (67)
What is replacement cost?
How much it would cost to reacquire an asset today (Entrance Cost)
What is a market cost?
The sale price of an asset (Exit Cost)
What is Net Realizable Value?
Sale Price of an Asset - Selling/Disposal Fee
When is royalty income recognized? How is it recognized?
Recognized when earned
If the royalty % is applied against net sales then subtract the estimated return amount from the gross sales first and then apply the royalty rate
When is revenue recognized in an installment sale?
Revenue recognized upon receipt of cash
Only used when cash collection is uncertain
What is deferred gross profit?
Gross Profit that can't be recognized until cash is received
D.GP : Gross Profit % x Accounts Receivable
Pay attention to the year if GP% varies
What is the cost recovery method?
No revenue recognized until all costs are recovered from purchase of the asset
Most conservative method of revenue recognition when collection of sale price is uncertain
What is subscription revenue? How is it recorded?
Payment has been received but performance is not complete.
As company performs revenue is recognized.
Recorded as a Deferred Revenue (Liability) on Balance Sheet
How are franchise revenues recorded?
Franchisor - Startup franchise fee revenue deferred until substantial performance
Franchisee - Costs are deferred until corresponding revenue is recognized
How do you calculate sales revenue starting from cash basis income?
Sales (i.e. Customer Payments)
+ Ending Accounts Receivable
- Beginning Accounts Receivable
: Sales Revenue on an Accrual Basis
How do you calculate COGS starting from Cash Basis?
Cash Remitted (i.e. paid)
+Increase in Accounts Payable
-Increase in Inventory
:COGS on an Accrual Basis
How are discontinued operations reported? When are they used?
Reported Net of Tax after Continuing Operations but before Extraordinary Items
Company decides to cease operating a segment of its business (represents a strategic shift and has major effect on operations and financials)
Includes Income (or loss) from the period plus the gain (or loss) from disposal
For discontinued operations, what are the three requirements for disposal assets?
They must be Held for Sale - Sold - or Disposed of another way
What qualifies as an extraordinary item? How is it recorded?
Both unusual AND infrequent
Reported Net of Tax after Discontinued Operations
Note: Usual *or* Infrequent Items are reported as part of Continuing Operations
What is constant dollar accounting?
Adjusts assets to reflect a consistent level of purchasing power due to inflation
Uses the Consumer Price Index (CPI)
When are expenses recognized?
When they are incurred. Accrue if not yet paid.
What are accrued expenses?
Those incurred but not paid.
Product costs - Expenses should be matched with associated revenues as they are recognized (sales commission on a used car sale)
Period costs - Expenses amortized and recognized with the passage of time
When should impaired assets be written down to fair value and expensed?
What major items should be classified under General & Administrative (G&A) expenses?
Office staff salaries
Note: Sales staff salaries and portions of the building assigned to Sales should be allocated to Selling Expense not G&A
What are business start-up costs?
One-time costs for opening a new business
Expensed as they are incurred
When is interest *not* expensed?
Interest on projects (software) for internal use is not expensed but is instead capitalized
What are the major components of Comprehensive Income?
Net Income + Other Comprehensive Income (OCI):
Cumulative accounting adjustments
Non-owner changes in equity
What items are considered cumulative accounting adjustments?
Foreign Currency Translation Adjustments
Unrealized gains on AFS Securities
Minimum Pension Liability adjustment for defined benefit plans
What is the purpose of a reclassification adjustment?
Avoids double counting items that were included in both Net Income and OCI
Example: AFS Securities previously included in OCI are now sold at a loss and reported on the Income Statement
Where is Comprehensive Income reported?
Reported in a Single or Combined Income Statement
What disclosures on accounting policies are required in financial statements?
Accounting Principles used
Basis of Consolidation
Inventory Pricing Methods
Amortization of Intangibles
What are some major risks and uncertainties that must be disclosed?
Nature of Operations
Use of Estimates and listing of Significant Estimates
Under Cash Basis Accounting how are Revenue and Expenses recognized?
Revenue is recognized with Cash Inflow and Expenses Recognized with Cash Outflow
Is Cash Basis Accounting ok for Tax Returns?