First Aid: Behavioral Science Flashcards Preview

USMLE Step 1 Prep > First Aid: Behavioral Science > Flashcards

Flashcards in First Aid: Behavioral Science Deck (16):
1

What is the difference between a case-control and cohort study?

Case-control is only retrospective (What happened)

Cohort can be retro or prospective (Who will develop disease or Who developed disease comparing exposed vs. nonexposed)

2

What does sensitivity tell you? Specificity?

Sensitivity = Rate of TRUE POSITIVES
SNNOUT - When a test is highly sensitive it has a high likelihood of ruling OUT disease in those who are negative.

Specificity = Rate of TRUE NEGATIVES
SPPIN - When a test is highly specific, it has a high likelihood of ruing IN disease in those who are positive

3

What does sensitivity tell you? Specificity?

Sensitivity = Rate of TRUE POSITIVES
SNNOUT - When a test is highly sensitive it has a high likelihood of ruling OUT disease in those who are negative.

Specificity = Rate of TRUE NEGATIVES
SPPIN - When a test is highly specific, it has a high likelihood of ruing IN disease in those who are positive

4

What is the difference between standard deviation and standard error of the mean?

SD = variability from the mean

SEM = sample mean vs. population mean variability

5

What do bimodal distributions suggest?

Two different populations (e.g. suicide rate by age)

6

What is the difference between Type 1 and Type II error (alpha vs. beta)? How can either be avoided?

Alpha = false positive; you saw an association when one really wasn't there
-avoid by using p value 5% chance of error

Beta = false negative; you missed an association that is there
-avoid by increasing the power of your study (increase sample size); increasing precision of measurement; increasing expected effect size

7

What is the difference between Type 1 and Type II error (alpha vs. beta)? How can either be avoided?

Alpha = false positive; you saw an association when one really wasn't there
-avoid by using p value 5% chance of error

Beta = false negative; you missed an association that is there
-avoid by increasing the power of your study (increase sample size); increasing precision of measurement; increasing expected effect size

8

What is the purpose of the Confidence Interval? How do you calculate?

to determine if significant difference exists between two groups. If CI between 2 groups overlap, there is no significant difference.

CI = [mean - Z(SEM)] to [mean + Z(SEM)]
Z = 1.96 for 95%, Z=2.58 for 99%

9

What is the purpose of the Confidence Interval? How do you calculate?

to determine if significant difference exists between two groups. If CI between 2 groups overlap, there is no significant difference.

CI = [mean - Z(SEM)] to [mean + Z(SEM)]
Z = 1.96 for 95%, Z=2.58 for 99%

10

What does the t-test check for? ANOVA? Chi-square?

t-test - check difference between means of 2 groups

ANOVA - check difference between means of 3 or more groups

Chi-square - Chi-tegorical - checks difference between 2 or more percentages or proportions of categorical outcomes (not mean values)

11

What does the Pearson coefficient (r) measure?

Measures the level of correlation between 2 variables. the closer the absolute value of r is to one, the greater the correlation.

r can range from -1 (negative correlation) to +1 (positive correlation)

12

What does the Pearson coefficient (r) measure?

Measures the level of correlation between 2 variables. the closer the absolute value of r is to one, the greater the correlation.

r can range from -1 (negative correlation) to +1 (positive correlation)

13

What is a key difference between a living will and medical power of attorney?

Medical power of attorney is more flexible and can be revoked at anytime the patient wishes (regardless of competence).

14

What is the priority of surrogates?

Spouse > adult children > parents > adult siblings > other relatives

15

What is the priority of surrogates?

Spouse > adult children > parents > adult siblings > other relatives

16

What does the apgar score measure?

Appearance, Pulse, Grimace, Activity and Respiration

>7 is good