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Flashcards in First Aid/Immediate Care Deck (49):
1

What is the chain of survival?
(4 items)

Early access
Early basic life support
Early defibrillation
Early advanced life support

2

What are the 3 roles in a first aid situation?

Responder- first on scene
Assistant- gets medical kit and another person to help
Communicator- tell cpt and get other help/doctor if possible

3

What are the principles of immediate care?
(5 points)

Asses the situation
Do no further harm
Stabilise airway, breathing and circulation
Give treatment within your skill level
Refer to medical help

4

AVPU checks for response.
It stands for...

Alert
Voice (responds to)
Pain (responds to)
Unresponsive to stimulus

5

Use the acronym AMPLE to asses medical history. It stands for...

Allergies
Medication
Past medical history
Last food or fluid intake
Extras (any other info come to light?)

6

Handover of a patient uses MIST, stands for...

Mechanism of injury
Injuries
Signs and symptoms
Treatment given

7

CPR- ration of chest compressions to breaths...

30 compressions to 2 breaths

8

Child and infant CPR requires...

5 rescue breaths
30:2 breaths to compressions

9

Nose bleed- treatment is...
For how long?

Pinch fleshy part of nose for 10 mins
Do this 3 times.
If it doesn't stop, seek medical help

10

Swelling uses the mnemonic RICE.
Stands for...

Rest
Ice
Compression
Elevation

11

Choking calls for...

5 back slaps
5 abdominal thrusts
Remember to check between each action to see if blockage has cleared.

12

A stroke is diagnosed using the mnemonic FAST. Stands for...

Facial weakness
Arms weak, esp on one side
Speech slurred
Time - get medical help asap

13

What are the 3 different bleeds?

Arterial
Veinal
Capillary

14

Signs/symptoms of shock?

Sweating
Cold clammy skin
Thirsty
Rapid weak pulse

15

3 types of burn

Superficial
Partial thickness
Full thickness

16

Signs / symptoms of a heart attack?

Chest pain
Ashen grey
Difficulty breathing
Anxiety
Tingling in fingers
Feeling of impending doom

17

Types of burns are...

Dry (flames)
Wet
Cold
Chemical
Electrical
Radiation (sunburn)

18

An infant needs CPR.
How many rescue breaths?

5

19

Immediate care;
What is listed for a primary survey

A Airway
B Breathing
C Circulation
D Dysfunction
E Examination

20

CPR - How deep should chest compressions be on an infant and also child?

Approx a third of the depth.
Infant - 4 cm
Child - 5cm

21

How do you treat a chocking infant?

5 back slaps with infant positioned head down.
If not successful, use chest thrusts, head still down.

22

Using the AED where do you place the pads for a child (aged 1-8, less than 25kg)

Front and back

23

After how long in the recovery position should a patient be turned over?

30 mins

24

What is a primary survey assessment?

Airway
Breathing
Circulation
Dysfunction
Examination

25

How do you treat a bleed from the ear?

Dress but don't block the ear
Treat for shock
Seek medical advice

26

What is Stridor?

High pitched grunting

27

What's the best way to manage an airway?

Head tilt, chin lift.
Hand on forehead, two fingers under chin.
OR... Jaw thrust. Kneel behind head, lift the jaw.

28

Hypoxia signs and symptoms

Early signs- confusion, disorientation, aggression.
Rapid pulse
Late signs - cyanosis of lips, mouth, neck, chest, under eyelids

29

If someone is struggling to breath, best treatment is...

Oxygen, sit upright, lean forward. Place hands on knees to open up chest cavity.

30

Where is the radial pulse?

Wrist

31

Where is the brachial pulse?

Inner side of the upper arm

32

How do you assess circulation?

Skin colour pale (often shock)
Temperature- cold, clammy indicates poor circulation
Capillary refill (press nail bed or heel of hand for 5 secs
Pulse

33

What's the average pulse rate over a minute?

60-100 bpm

34

Shock - signs and symptoms

Rapid weak pulse,
Pale clammy skin
Slow capillary refill
Nausea / vomiting
Thirst
Rapid shallow breathing
Restless, anxious, aggressive
Yawn/gasping for air
Go unconscious

35

Treatment for shock?

Lay down, raise legs, reassure, loosen tight clothing, give oxygen, keep warm, check and record breathing/pulse, if difficulty breathing or vomiting, put into recovery position.
Do not leave unattended.

36

Treatment of cuts - minor or major

Apply pressure
Elevate limb
Clean and dry wound
Dress wound.

37

How do you treat internal bleeding?

Treat as for shock.

38

What is AVPU?

For checking consciousness level.
Alert
Voice
Pain
Unresponsive

39

What's is AMPLE?

Medical history.
Allergies
Medication
Past medical history
Last eaten/drunk
Extras (eg medical cards, jewellery)

40

What is the acronym MIST used for?

Handover of patients.
Mechanism of injury
Injuries sustained
Signs and symptoms
Treatment given

41

Heart attack signs and symptoms

Vice like pain spreading from chest to back, neck, jaw.
Skin cold clammy grey
Difficulty breathing
Nausea/vomiting
Sense of impending doom.

42

Angina signs and systems and treatment

Similar signs to heart attack.
Rest and reassure
Loosen tight clothing
Continually assess
Normally have their medication with them, if pain persists, suspect heart attack

43

Asthma signs/symptoms/treatment

Difficulty breathing, Wheezing rapid pulse, Restlessness, drowsiness, confusion.
Treatment, sit up, preferably forward to allow,lungs to open, help to, use their inhaler.

44

Anaphylactic shock- signs /symptoms / treatment

Anxiety/widespread red or blotchy skin, puffiness around eyes, Stridor/wheezing, swollen upper body, signs of shock.
Treat with their epi pen, if medic present, offer EMK.

45

Stroke signs symptoms and treatment?

Paralysis one side of body/slurred speech/ severe headache/ strong pulse/ confused/ flushed face/ pupils may be unequal/ loss of consciousness.
Lay with head slightly raised, incline head to affected side for saliva drain, oxygen on,monitor breathing etc.

46

Unsure if hyperglycaemia or hypoglycaemia?

Give sugary drink

47

Food poisoning, signs symptoms and treatment?

Nausea, cramping abdominal pains, diarrhoea, headache, fever, features of shock.
Give sips of water, seat near toilet.

48

Hyperventilation?

Signs, rapid deep breathing, sweating clamp appearance, tingling, agitation.
Treatment, calm and reassure, instruct to relax and slow,down breathing.

49

Fainting casualty?

Pale cold skin.
Lie them down, raise legs.
Do not allow to stand until they've recovered.