First Aid Rapid Review Step 2 CK Flashcards Preview

COMLEX Level 2 CE > First Aid Rapid Review Step 2 CK > Flashcards

Flashcards in First Aid Rapid Review Step 2 CK Deck (103):
1

Antihypertensive for a diabetic patient with proteinuria

ACE inhibitor

2

Beck triad for cardiac tamponade

Hypotension, distant heart sounds, and JVD

3

Drugs that slow heart rate

B-blockers, CCBs, digoxin, amiodarone

4

Hypercholesterolemia tx that leads to flushing and pruritus

Niacin

5

A systolic ejection murmur heard along the lateral sternal border that increases with decreased preload (Valsalva maneuver)

Hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM)

6

A diastolic, decrescendo, low-pitched blowing murmur that is best heard sitting up; increases with increased afterload (handgrip maneuver)

Aortic insufficiency

7

A systolic crescendo/decrescendo murmur that radiates to the neck; increases with increased preload (squatting maneuver)

Aortic stenosis

8

A holosystolic murmur that radiates to the axilla; increases with increased afterload (handgrip maneuver)

Mitral regurgitation

9

A diastolic, mid-to late, low-pitched murmur preceded by an opening snap

Mitral stenosis

10

An autoimmune reaction with fever, pericarditis, and increased ESR occuring 2-4 weeks post-MI

Dressler syndrome

11

Classic ECG findings in pericarditis

Low-voltage, diffuse ST-segment elevation and PR depression

12

Diagnostic test for pulmonary embolism

Spiral CT with contrast

13

Reverses the effects of heparin

Protamine

14

Most common cause of HTN in young women

OCPs

15

Most common cause of HTN in young men

Excessive EtOH

16

Water bottle-shaped heart

Pericardial effusion

17

"Stuck on" waxy appearance

Seborrheic keratosis

18

Red plaques with silverly-white scales and sharp margins

Psoriasis

19

Most common type of skin cancer; lesion is a pearly-colored papule with a translucent surface and telangiectasias

Basal cell carcinoma

20

Honey-crusted lesions

Impetigo

21

+ Nikolsky sign

Pemphigus vulgaris

22

- Nikolsky sign

Bullous pemphigoid

23

A 55 y/o obese patient presents with dirty, velvety patches on the back of the neck

Acanthosis nigricans. Chest fasting blood glucose

24

Dermatomal distribution

Varicella zoster

25

Flat-topped papules

Lichen planus

26

Irislike target lesions

Erythema multiforme

27

Presents with one large patch and many smaller ones in a treelike distribution

Pityriasis rosea

28

A premalignant lesion from sun exposure that can lead to squamous cell carcinoma

Actinic keratosis

29

Flat, often hypopigmented lesions on the chest and back; KOH prep has a spaghetti-and-meatballs appearance

Tinea (pityriasis) versicolor

30

Cradle cap

Seborrheic dermatitis

31

Inflammation and epithelial thinning of the anogenital area, predominantly in postmenopausal women

Lichen sclerosus

32

Exophytic nodules on the skin with scaling or ulceration; the second most common type of skin cancer

Squamous cell carcinoma

33

Most common cause of hypothyroidism

Hashimoto thyroiditis

34

Exopthalmos, pretibial myxedema, and decreased TSH

Graves disease

35

The most common cause of Cushing syndrome

Iatrogenic corticosteroid administration

36

A patient post-thyroidectomy presents with signs of hypocalcemia and increased phosphorous

Hypoparathyroidism (iatrogenic)

37

Stones, bones, groans, psychiatric overtones

Signs and symptoms of hypercalcemia

38

HTN, hypokalemia and metabolic alkalosis

Primary hyperaldosteronism (due to Conn syndrome or bilat adrenal hyperplasia)

39

A patient presents with tachycardia, wild swings in BP, headache, diaphoresis, AMS, and a sense of panic

Pheochromocytoma

40

Which should be used first in treating pheochromocytoma?

alpha-blockers (phenoxybenzamine)

41

A patient with a hx of lithium use presents with copious amounts of dilute urine

Nephrogenic DI

42

Tx of central DI

Administration of DDAVP and free-water restruction

43

A postop pt with significant pain presents with hyponatremia and normal volume status

SIADH due to stress

44

An anti-diabetic agent associated with lactic acidosis

Metformin

45

A pt presents with weakness, nausea, vomiting, weight loss, and new skin pigmentation. Lab results show hyponatremia and hyperkalemia

Primary adrenal insufficiency (Addison disease). Treat with glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids, and IV fluids

46

Bone pain, hearing loss, and increased alkaline phosphatase

Paget disease

47

Increased IGF-1

Acromegaly

48

Galactorrhea, amenorrhea, and bitemporal hemianopia

Prolactinoma

49

Increased serum 17-hydroxyprogesterone

Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (21-hydroxylase deficiency)

50

Pancreas, pituitary, parathyroid tumors

MEN 1

51

A patient presents with sudden onset of severe, diffuse abdominal pain. Exam reveals peritoneal signs, and abdominal radiograph reveals free air under the diaphragm. Management?

Emergent laparotomy to repair a perforated viscus

52

The most likely cause of acute lower GI bleeding in patients > 40 years of age

Diverticulosis

53

Diagnostic modality used when US is equivocal for cholecystitis

Hepatobiliary iminodiacetic acid (HIDA) scan

54

Inspiratory arrest during palpation of the RUQ

Murphy sign (seen in acute cholecystitis)

55

The most common cause of SBO in patients with no hx of abdominal surgery

Hernia

56

The most common cause of SBO in patients with a hx of abdominal surgery

Adhesions

57

Most common bacterial organism causing diarrhea

Campylobacter

58

Recent abx use causing diarrhea

C. difficile

59

Camping diarrhea

Giardia

60

Traveler's diarrhea

Enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC)

61

Church picnics/mayonnaise causing diarrhea

S> aureus

62

Uncooked hamburgers diarrhea

E. coli O157:H7

63

Fried rice diarrhea

B. cereus

64

Poultry/eggs diarrhea

Salmonella

65

Raw seafood diarrhea

Vibrio, HAV

66

AIDS diarrhea

Isospora, cryptosporidium, MAC

67

Pseudoappendicitis

Yersinia, campylobacter

68

A 25 y/o Jewish man presents with pain and watery diarrhea after meals. Exam shows fistulas between the bowel and skin and nodular lesions on his tibias

Crohn disease

69

Inflammatory disease of the colon with an increased risk pf colon cancer

Ulcerative colitis (greater risk than Crohn)

70

Extraintestinal manifestations of IBD

Uveitis, ankylosing spondylitis, pyoderma gangrenosum, erythema nodosum, Primary sclerosing cholangitis

71

Medical tx for IBD

5-ASA agents and steroids during acute exacerbations

72

A 30 y/o man with UC presents with fatigue, jaundice and pruritus

Primary sclerosing cholangitis

73

Medical tx for hepatic encephalopathy

Decrease protein intake, lactulose, rifaximin

74

A 4 y/o presents with oliguria, petechiae, and jaundice following an illness with bloody diarrhea. Most likely diagnosis and cause?

HUS due to E coli O157:H7

75

Tx after exposure to Hep B

HBV immunoglobulin

76

Classic causes of drug-induced hepatitis

TB meds (INH, rifampin, pyrazinamide), acetaminophen, and tetracycline

77

A 40 y/o obese woman with elevated alkaline phosphatase, elevated bilirubin, pruritus, dark urine, and clay colored stools

Biliary tract obstruction

78

Hernia with highest risk of incarceration

Femoral hernia

79

Severe abdominal pain out of proportion to the exam

Mesenteric ischemia

80

Diagnosis of ileus

Abdominal radiographs (could also use CT scan)

81

Anemia from chronic disease, occult blood loss, vague abdominal pain. What side is the colon cancer?

Right-sided

82

Obstructive symptoms, change in bowel movements. What side is the colon cancer

Left-sided: "apple-core" lesio

83

Presents with watery diarrhea, dehydration, muscle weakness, and flushing

VIPoma

84

Presents with palpable, nontender gallbladder

Courvoisier sign (suggests pancreatic cancer)

85

Four causes of microcytic anemia

Thalassemia, Iron deficiency, anemia of Chronic disease, and Sideroblastic anemia (TICS)

86

Precipitants of hemolytic crisis in patients with G6PD deficiency

Sulfonamides, antimalarial drugs, fava beans

87

The most common inherited cause of hypercoagulability

Factor V Leiden mutation

88

The most common inherited bleeding disordered

von Willebrand disease

89

The most common inherited hemolytic anemia

Hereditary spherocytosis

90

Diagnostic test for hereditary spherocytosis

Osmotic fragility test

91

Pure RBC aplasia

Diamond-Blackfan anemia

92

Anemia associated with absent radii and thumbs, diffuse hyperpigmentation, café au lait spots, microcephaly, and pancytopenia

Fanconi anemia

93

Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura pentad?

Fever, Anemia, Thrombocytopenia, Renal dysfunction, Neuro abnormalities (FAT RN)

94

An 8 y/o boy presents with hemarthrosis and increased PTT with normal PT and bleeding time

Hemophilia A or B

95

A 14 y/o girl presents with prolonged bleeding after dental surgery and with menses, normal PT, normal or increased PTT, and increased bleeding time

von Willebrand disease (treat with desmopressin, FFB or cryo)

96

Reed-Sternberg cells

Hodgkin lymphoma

97

A 10 y/o boy presents with fever, wt loss and night sweats. Exam shows an anterior mediastinal mass. Diagnosis?

Non-Hodgkin lymphoma

98

An 80 y/o man presents with fatigue, lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, and isolated lymphocytosis; smudge cells

Chronic lymphocytic leukemia

99

Auer rods on blood smear

Acute myelogenous leukemia

100

AML subtype associated with DIC. Treatment?

M3. Treat with retinoic acid

101

A 50 y/o man presents with early satiety, splenomegaly, and bleeding. Cytogenetics show t(9;22).

CML

102

Virus associated with aplastic anemia in pt's with sickle cell

Parvovirus B19

103

A significant cause of morbidity in thalassemia patients. Treatment?

Iron overload. Tx with deferoxamine