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Flashcards in First Farmers In SA Deck (53):
1

Which part of Africa did the people begin to grow crops 3000 years ago

Central Africa

2

Could the crop farmers stay for a long time in the same area and why - 3 marks

No because the crops would take goodness out of the soil and was no longer fertile

3

Where did the farmers from central Africa move once the land was no longer useful

They moved southwards

4

Where is the summer rainfall area of SA

North East of SA

5

Name 5 things the people did in the north east (summer rainfall) area

Farm Cattle & sheep
Grew millet or sorghum
Made pottery
Iron workers
Trade in ivory

6

What is a small settlement known as and who led it

Know as a Chiefdom led by a chief

7

The larger chiefdoms were led under what

A king

8

What area was wealthy and powerful in the early 1200's

Mapungubwe / Limpopo

9

As farmers moved to the east coast of SA. Where did they settle?

They settled in the fertile river valleys of the drakensberg mountains and the coast

10

How did the farmers clear their land to plant crops

Cut down trees and bushes and burnt the grass

11

Name 3 things cattle provide to the people

Meat, milk & clothing

12

How did the farmers get extra meat

They hunted

13

If the people didn't farm, what job did they have

Some worked iron and made pottery

14

Where did the farmers with cattle and sheep move to have better grazing

To the high grasslands

15

Where did the farmers who grew crops stay

In the river valleys

16

Could the farmers who moved to the gassland grow groups

No

17

How did the cattle & sheep farmers get grain

They traded cattle for grain

18

How was a a homestead made up

Huts in a circle around a cattle kraal

19

What is a homestead

Huts together with a cattle kraal

20

How did the farmers store their grain

By digging pits in the ground and lined with clay

21

How did the fakers make meal

By ground millet and sorghum with grinding stones

22

How did the farmers get iron

By trading the with iron makers

23

What were the most important iron tools used

Hoes & Axes

24

Was land important to everyone and why

Yes because everyone had the right to the land and the products on that land

25

Where did the Chiefs sons move on as they got older and why

Moved away to new land to become their own chief

26

When was there conflict over the land

During drought

27

Did the farmers rely on the San people in the early years.
Name 3 reasons why

Yes
San could bring rain
San looked after the farmers cattle
Farmers used the San's stone tools

28

Why was their conflict between the San and farmers

Because the farmers grew bigger and needed more space for their cattle

29

Who was the head of a homestead

The senior male

30

Who belongs to a lineage

Groups of related families

31

All members of a lineage are related through what

Common ansestors

32

Who are know as elders

The most respected senior men

33

How was a clan formed

By a number of people who believed they all came from the same ansestors and share the clan name

34

What made up a village

A group of homesteads

35

Who would meet in the village to discuss matters

The heads of each homestead

36

Who controls the cattle belonging to the lineage

The elders

37

When a young man wants to marry who does he speak to about what

He speaks to the else's about how many cattle he must provide

38

What is mixed farming

To farm with cattle and crops

39

Name 4 things other than sorghum and millet that the farmers grew

Maize, pumpkins, melons & sweet cane

40

What food did women gather

Berries &a wild spinach

41

What were boys taught at initiation

Economic knowledge and how to be a good leader

42

What were girls taught at initiation

Taught the roles of being a women

43

What were both boys and girls taught ant initiation

Respect and self discipline

44

How do we know people co-operated with one another

They all worked together during the year
They all worked together during seasons
They all Shared food
They all took responsibility to look after the children

45

Who selects a leader of the homestead

The elder

46

Over time, who takes over from a chief

His son from the great wife

47

When a chief dies young and his son is too young to rule, who will be chief and for how long

His wife will be chief until his son is old enough

48

If a chief treated the elder or other members of the homestead badly, who moves away

The elder and his family and cattle

49

What were the people from the homestead able to do with the wealth of cattle - 6 things

Food, milk , skins
Marriage gifts
Trade
Paying tax
Starting homesteads
Sacrificing for religious reasons

50

Name 4 things iron can be used for

Hoes & axes to plant
Use for hunting
Use to pay taxes
Use for bridewealth

51

What did metal workers mine

Copper

52

What was copper used for

To make Jewelry eg. Arm bands, earnings and necklaces

53

What is stronger, iron or copper

Iron