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1

Male infertility causes

Blockage, sperm motility, capacitation, low sperm count/testosterone

2

Female infertility causes

Blocakge, age (lack of viable oocytes)

3

Normal male sperm count

> 100 million/ml

4

Male sperm count for infertility

< 10 million/ml

5

Cause of a monosomy or trisomy

Nondisjunction of Meiosis I or Nondisjunction of Meiosis II during gametogenesis

6

Trisomy 21 Name of Condition?

Down's Syndrome

7

Trisomy 21 Symptoms?

symptoms of condition: Craniofacial abnormalities, mental retardation, heart defects, epicanthal folds

8

Trisomy 18 Name of Condition?

Edward's Syndrome

9

Trisomy 18 Symptoms?

symptoms of condition: Intellectual disability, heart defects, low ears, kidney probs, small lower jaw (micrognathia)

10

Trisomy 13 Name of Condition?

Patau Syndrome

11

Trisomy 13 Symptoms?

symptoms of condition: Holoprosencephaly, heart defects, cleft lip, deaf

12

X Monosomy Name of condition?

Turner's Syndrome

13

Turner's Syndrome Symptoms?

symptoms of condition: Female, web neck, infertile because gonadal dysgenesis aka gonadal "streak"

14

XXY Name of condition?

Klienfelter's

15

Klienfelter's Symptoms?

symptoms of condition: Male, infertile, gynecomastia, micropenis

16

When does spontaneous abortion occur most commonly?

First 3 weeks

17

What is the most common cause of spontaneous abortion?

Chromosomal abnormalities

18

What are the most optimal sites of implantation?

Posterior wall and fundus of uterus

19

What is the most common site of ectopic implantation?

Uterine tube

20

What is placenta previa?

Placenta partially or fully covers the internal os

21

What causes placenta previa?

Implantation lower in the uterus (close to cervix)

22

What is placenta accreta?

Synciotrophoblasts invade the myometrium

23

Why is placenta accreta life threaning for the mother?

Excessive bleeding because the uterus tears when the baby is born

24

What cells of placenta release hCG?

Synciotrophoblasts

25

What is mosacism?

Tissues of different genetic composition located throughout the body

26

What causes mosacism?

Nondisjunction AFTER fertilization during mitosis

27

What does LH do in males?

Stimulates Interstital cells of Leydig to produce testosterone

28

What does FSH do in males?

Stimulates stertoli cells to produce testicular fluid AND synthesis of androgen receptors

29

How is spermatogenesis endocrinologically stimulated in males?

LH stimulates Leydig cells to produce testosterone. FSH stimulates androgen receptors on Sertoli cells. Testosterone (produced by Leydig cells) binds to androgen receptors on Sertoli cells stimulating spermatogenesis.

30

What is the first sign of gastrulation?

Primitive streak formation

31

What are the 3 results of fertilization

1. Restoration of diploid # of chromosomes 2. Genetic Sex determination 3. Initiation of cleavage

32

What is a Sacrococcygeal teratoma?

Tumor of all 3 germ layers off coccygeal area; Result of lack of degeneration of primitive streak

33

What is Sirenomelia?

Caudal dysgenesis; Caused by lack of mesoderm caudally

34

What is Situs Inversus?

Reverse or organs on the Rt and Lt sides; Caused by disruption of signalling in the Rt-Lt axis

35

Vasculogenesis occurs when and where first?

When: 3rd Week (Day 16); Where: Splanchnic extraembryonic mesoderm of yolk sac

36

What is the notochord remnant?

Nucleus pulposus

37

What is the annular fibrosis embrological origin?

Sclerotome (paraxial mesoderm)

38

What is the allantois?

Rudimentary "bladder"; Essentially nonfunctional in humans

39

What is the adult remnant of allantois?

Urachus; Median Umbilical Ligament

40

Safe place to take LP (Lumbar Puncture) in adult?

Below L3

41

Location of Spinal cord in 6 month fetus?

S1

42

Location of Spinal cord in newborn?

L2/ L3

43

Location of Spinal cord in adult?

L1/L2

44

What is Rathke's pouch?

Ectoderm in oropharyngeal membrane (called Stomodeum) that invaginated cranially to become anterior pituitary gland

45

What is another name for anterior pituitary?

Adenohypophysis

46

What is another name for the posterior pituitary?

Neurohypophysis

47

What are the hormones produced by posterior pituitary?

ADH and Oxytocin

48

Where do the basal and floor plates end in brain development?

Diencephalon

49

What is the origin of the Posterior Pituitary?

Neurophypophyseal diverticulum drops down from the diencephalon and joins Rathke's pouch to become pituitary gland

50

What is the infundibulum?

The connecting stalk that connects the hypothalamus to the posterior pituitary

51

What form the cerebellum?

The rhombic lips of metencephalon

52

What is the sulcus limitans?

The lateral sulcus in the central canal- separates alar (sensory) and basal (motor) plates

53

What do the Alar plates become in the spinal cord?

Dorsal horn (grey matter) of spinal cord

54

What do the Basal plates become in the spinal cord?

Ventral horn (grey matter) of spinal cord

55

What are the 3 zones of the spinal cord neuroepithelium from deep to superficial?

Ventricular zone, Mantle (Intermediate) and Marginal Zones

56

What does the corpus striatum give rise to?

C shaped portion of floor of cerebral hemispheres. Grows more slowly than the rest of the hemispheres creating the C-shaped hemispheres. It contains white matter called the internal capsule.

57

The interventricular foramen of Monroe is where?

Channels between each lateral ventricle and the 3rd ventricle of the brain

58

What are the 2 types of spina bifida cystica?

Meningocele (just meninges and CSF herniation) and Meningomyelocele (Spinal cord, meninges and CSF herniation)

59

What is spina bifida occulta?

The failure of the (usually lumbar) vertebral lamina to close and the spinal cord is not protected by bone. Usually no symptoms except a tuft of hair in lumbosacral region

60

What is Myeloschisis?

The most severe form of spina bifida. Spinal cord is on body surface because neural folds fail to fuse.

61

What is Holoprosencephaly?

Lack of forebrain development

62

What is meningoencephalocele?

Herniation of the brain and meninges

63

What is meningohydroencephalocele?

Herniation of brain, ventricles and meninges

64

What is exencephaly?

Brain is located outside the calvarium- failure of cranial neural tube closure

65

What is hydrocephaly?

Excess CSF- usually due to an obstruction. May occur with spina bifida and/or arnold chiari malformation

66

What is Arnold Chiari malformation?

Herniation of cerebellum through the foramen magnum. Often occurs concurrently with spina bifida and hydrocephaly.

67

What is eventration of diaphragm?

Diaphragm fully forms with the lack or failure of myotomes from somites of C3-C5. A very weak/thin diaphragm forms. May or may not have phrenic nerve.

68

What is congenital diphragmatic herniation?

Failure of pleuropteritoneal folds to close. Usually occurs on the left as the rt side closes first due to the liver. Growing gut tube migrates upward into the lt thoracic cavity and prevents lung formation and causes pulmonary hypoplasia.

69

What are the 3 waves of cells created by the ventricular neuroepithelium?

1st: Neuroblasts (stay in Mantle later). 2nd: Gliablasts (migrate to Marginal layer) and 3rd: Ependymal cells

70

What are the 4 types of CNS glial cells and their functions?

1. Astrocytes: Blood brain barrier, 2. Oligodendrocytes: CNS myelin, 3. Microglia: Phagocytes and 4. Ependymal cells: From choroid plexus and produce CSF

71

What origins of the 4 types of CNS glial cells?

1. Astrocytes: Gliablasts, 2. Oligodendrocytes: Gliablasts, 3. Microglia:Vascular mesenchyme (monocytes) and 4. Ependymal cells:3rd wave of neurepithelial differentiation

72

What is ectopia cordis?

Heart outside of body, failure of thoracic ventral body wall to close

73

What is the function and origin of schwann cells?

PNS meylin, Neural crest

74

What is gastroschisis?

Failure of closure on abdominal body wall, intestines herniate into amniotic cavity and are damaged by amniotic fluid

75

What is bladder and cloacal exstrophy?

Failure of body wall closure in pelvic region; bladder outside body in bladder exstrophy while bladder AND rectum outside the body in cloacal exstrophy

76

Craniosynostosis

Premature closure of one of one or more sutures

77

What is omphalocele?

Failure of gut tube to return after normal physiological herniation through the umbilical cord

78

Brachycephaly

Coronal and lamdoid suture craniosysnostosis

79

Scaphocephaly

Sagittal suture craniosynostosis

80

Phocomelia (definition)

Rudimentary hands and feet, but no long bones

81

Phocomelia (cause)

Premature interruption of the apical ectodermal ridge

82

Amelia (definition)

Complete absence of one or more extremites

83

Syndactyly (definition)

fused fingers or toes

84

Syndactyly (cause)

Problem with apoptotic cell death between digits

85

Polydactyly

Extra fingers or toes

86

(embryonic origin) Left Brachiocephalic vein

Anastomosis of right and left cranial cardinal veins

87

(embryonic origin) Right brachiocephalic vein

Right cranial cardinal vein

88

(embryonic orgin) SVC

Right common cardinal vein

89

(Embryonic orgin) Azygous

Right caudal cardinal vein

90

(embryonic orgin) Proximal IVC

Right Vitelline vein

91

(embryonic origin)Common Iliac veins

Caudal aspect of both right and left caudal cardinal veins

92

(embryonic orgin) Hepatic portal system

Right Vitelline vein

93

(embryonic orgin) ductus venosus

Left Umbilical vein

94

(embryonic orgin) right subclavian artery

right 4th aortic arch

95

(embryonic orgin) sinus venarum

Sinus venosis (right sinus horn)

96

(embryonic orgin) carotids

3rd aortic arch

97

(embryonic orgin) stapedius artery

2nd aortic arch

98

(embryonic orgin) Maxillary artery

1st aortic arch

99

(embryonic orgin) ductus arteriousus

left 6th aortic arch

100

Anastomosis of right and left cranial cardinal veins

(embryonic orgin) Left Brachiocephalic vein

101

Right cranial cardinal vein

(embryonic orgin) Right brachiocephalic vein

102

(embryonic orgin) Aortic arch

left 4th aortic arch

103

Right common cardinal vein

(embryonic orgin) SVC

104

Right caudal cardinal vein

(Embryonic orgin) Azygous

105

Right Vitelline vein

(embryonic orgin) Proximal IVC

106

Caudal aspect of both right and left caudal cardinal veins

(embryonic orgin) Common Iliac veins

107

Right Vitelline vein

(embryonic orgin) Hepatic portal system

108

Left Umbilical vein

(embryonic orgin) ductus venosus

109

right 4th aortic arch

(embryonic orgin) right subclavian artery

110

Sinus venosis (right sinus horn)

(embryonic orgin) sinus venarum

111

3rd aortic arch

(embryonic orgin) carotids

112

2nd aortic arch

(embryonic orgin) stapedius artery

113

1st aortic arch

(embryonic orgin) Maxillary artery

114

left 6th aortic arch

(embryonic orgin) ductus arteriousus

115

left 4th aortic arch

(embryonic orgin) Aortic arch

116

Tetralogy of fallot (name 4 symptoms)

VSD, Hypertrophy of right ventricle, stenosis of pulmonary trunk, and overriding aorta

117

Persistent truncus arterios (causes what?)

a mixture of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood in both systems; accompanied by VSD in most cases

118

Great vessel trasposition

Right ventricle ->Aorta ////left ventricle ->pulmonary trunk

119

VSD, Hypertrophy of right ventricle, stenosis of pulmonary trunk, and overriding aorta

Tetralogy of fallot (name 4 symptoms)

120

a mixture of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood in both systems; accompanied by VSD in most cases

Persistent truncus arterios (causes what?)

121

Right ventricle ->Aorta ////left ventricle ->pulmonary trunk

Great vessel transposition

122

Preductal Aortic coarctation (implications)

Increased use of ductus arteriosus, during fetal development, and loss of lower extremity circulation after birth

123

Postductal Aortic coarctation (implications)

loss of lower extremity circulation in fetal development, thus remodeling of upper extremity vessels; fine at birth because of remodeling

124

right 6th aortic arch

degenerates (therefore Rt. recurrent laryngeal hooks underneath Rt. Subclavian a.)

125

Lt. common cardinal vein

Coronary Sinus & Oblique vein of Left Atrium

126

Coronary Sinus & Oblique vein of Left Atrium (embryonic origin)

Lt. common cardinal vein

127

What is meroencephaly?

(Can be caused by exencephaly.) Brain tissue exposed to amniotic fluid degenerates with the brainstem left in tact. (Anencephaly is similar, although may have even less brain tissue present than meroencephaly)

128

Rt. Umbilical Vein

Degenerates

129

Lt. Vitelline Vein

Degenrates