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Flashcards in Flight Physiology Deck (28):
1

Boyle's Law

  • Boyle's = Balloon = Barotrauma
  • The pressure of a gas is inversely proportional to the volume of a gas at a constant temperature.
  • P1V1 = P2V2
  • Affects ETT cuffs, MAST, air splints, increases drip rate
  • If pneumocephalus - ICP increase

2

Dalton's Law

  • "Dalton's Gang"
  • Law of partial pressures
  • The total pressure of a gas mixture is the sum of the partial pressures of all the gases of the mixture.
  • PT = P1 + P2 + P3 ....
  • Responsible for soft tissue swelling at altitude - uptake of inert gases into tissue

3

Charles' Law

  • "Charging Charles"
  • At a constant pressure, the volume of gas is directly proportional to the absolute temperature of the gas
  • V1/T1 = V2/T2
  • Law has very little effect on the human body

4

Gay-Lussac's Law

  • Directly proportional relationship between temperature and pressure
  • P1/T1 = P2/T2
  • Ex. - Oxygen tank left in the cold will have a lower pressure

5

Graham's Law

  • "Graham's = Grey Matter"
  • Law of Gaseous Diffusion - gas exchange at the cellular level
  • The rate of diffusion of a gas through a liquid medium is directly related to the solubility of the gas and inversely proportional to the square root of its density
  • Limits ability to move through liquid

6

Henry's Law

  • "Henry = Heineken"
  • Solubility of gas in liquid
  • The quantity of gas dissolved in 1mL of a liquid is proportional to the partial pressure of the gas in contact with the liquid
  • Affects divers, can lead to decompression sickness

7

Decompression Sickness

  • "The Bends"
  • Related to Henry's Law
  • Type 1 - Nitrogen related, painful joints, motled skin, pruritic
  • Type 2 - neurologic S/Sx, hypvolemic shock

8

Cutis Marmorata

Mottled skin, can often look like a sunburn, associated with Type 1 decomrpession sickness

9

Arterial Gas Embolism

  • Related to Boyle's Law
  • Caused breath holding during ascent on a dive, air pushes through alveoli and enters skin in neck/chest - causes PTX
  • Air is forced into blood vessels - blocks them - ischemia
  • Stroke-Like symptoms, cough, epistaxis
  • Requires immediate hyperbaric treatment

10

Pulmonary Overpressurization

  • Related to Boyle's Law
  • Occurs when "breath holding" compressed air during ascent
  • Causes lung overexpansion - alveolar damage, PTX, mediastinal emphysema

11

Atmosphere Calculation

  • Every 33 feet below water = 1atm
  • Sea Level = 1atm

12

Divers Alert Network

24 hour hotline for diving related injuries and questions.

13

Physiologic Zone

  • Sea level to 10,000 feet MSL
  • Night vision decreased beginning at 5,000 feet MSL

14

Physiologically Deficient Zone

  • 10k to 50k feet MSL
  • Oxygen or pressurization required
  • If sudden decompression occurs, time of useful consciousness (TUC) is cut in half
    • Signs of Decompression - cool temp in cabin, window fogging

15

Sqace Equivalent Zone

> 50,000 feet MSL

16

Oxygen Adjustment Calculation

(FiO2P1)/P2 = FiO2 required for ascent

P1 = pressure you are at

P2 - pressure you are flying to (cruising altitude)

17

Hypemic Hypoxia

  • "Anemic"
  • Reduction in the oxygen carrying capcity of blood
  • Anemia or hemorrhage

18

Histotoxic Hypoxia

  • "Poisoning"
  • Limits use of availble oxygen due to poisoning of the cytochrome oxidase system
  • Cyanide, alcohol, CO, NTG, Nipride

19

Hypoxic Hypoxia

  • "Not enough oxygen in the air"
  • Decreased pressure of oxygen at altitude
  • Deficiency in alveolar oxygen exchange
  • Cardiovascular/PTX patients are more susceptible

20

Stagnant Hypoxia

  • "Blood isn't moving"
  • Reduced CO or pulling of blood
  • High G forces, cardiogenic shock

21

Hypoxia Stages "ICDC"

  • Indifferent - full reasoning ability, loss of night vision
  • Compensatory - Increased HR, ventilations, slowed judgment
  • Disturbance - slurred speech, "drunk"
  • Critical - no longer able to physiologically function

22

DEATH Mnemonic

  • Dehydration
  • Exhaustion
  • Alcohol
  • Tobacco
  • Hypoglycemia

23

Inherent Stressors of Flight

Thermal Changes
Decreased Humidity
Gravitational Forces
Fatigude
Decreased PO2
Barometric Pressure Change
Noise
Vibration

24

G-Forces

Gx - anterior/posterior, best tolerated

Gz - vertical

Gy - Lateral, least tolerated

Cause BP to drop

25

Altitude Temperature Effects

  • Every 1,000ft increase in elevation causes temp. drop 2 degrees C
  • Temp. inversely proportional to altitude

26

Barondontalgia

  • Teeth
  • Occurs on ascent
  • Air trapped in fillings expands due to Boyles law
  • Also referred to as "aerodontalgia"

27

Barotitis

  • Ears
  • Occurs on descent
  • Air trapped in the middle ear can't vent through the bloded Eustachian Tube
  • "Ear Block"

28

Barosinusitis

  • Sinuses
  • Can occur on both ascent and descent
  • Can also cause pain in the maillary teeth
  • Sinus block