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Flashcards in Flight Physiology Deck (26):
1

Decompression Sickness 

"The Bends"

Type 1

What Law ?

What Symptoms ?

What Law ?

  • Henry's Law

Symptoms ?

  • Painful joints
  • mottled skin
  • pruritic (itching)

 

Pt may feel like ants are crawling on their skin.

Mottled skin can often look like a sunburn.

2

Decompression Sickness

"The bends"

Type 2

 

What Law ?

What Symptoms ?

What Law ?

  • Henry's Law

What Symptoms ?

  • Neuologica Signs & symptoms
  • Hypovolemic Shock

3

Arterial Gas Embolism

(AGE)

 

What Law ?

What Causes it ?

What Symptoms ?

What Treatment?

What Law ?

  • Related to Boyle's Law

What Causes it?

  • Holding breath during ascent on a dive (causing a pneumothorax)
  • Air being forced into blood vessels (causing Ischemia)

What Symptoms ?

  • Stoke-like symptoms
  • Altered mental status
  • Syncope
  • Dizziness
  • Caugh
  • Epistaxis

What treatment ?

  • Immediate Hyperbaric treatment!

Transport by goound if possile. Air trasnport in pressurized aircraft or <1000 MSL.

 

4

Pulmonary Overpressurization

 

What Law ?

What Cause it ?

Effect ?

What Law ?

  • Boyle's Law

What Cause it ?

  • Holding compressed air in your lungs during ascent.

Effect ?

  • Lung overexpansion
  • Ruptures the alveoli
  • Pneumothorax
  • Mediastinal emphysema

Common in inexperienced divers.

  •  

5

 

 

Atmosphere Calculations

Under water

  • Every 33 feet below water = 1 ATM (atmosphere)
  • Sea Level = 1 ATM
  • 33 ft. under water = 2 ATM
  • 66 ft. under water = 3 ATM

6

 

 

 

Atmospere Zones

  • Physiologic Zone 
  • Physiologically Deficient Zone
  • Space Equivalent Zone

7

 

 

Atmosphere Zones

Physiologic Zone

 

 

  • Seal Level - 10,000ft MSL

 

Night Vision is decreased beginning at 5,000ft MSL

8

 

 

Atmosphere Zones

Phyiologically Deficient Zone

  • 10,000 - 50,000ft MSL
  • Oxygen required to survive at these altitudes

 

  • Sign of compression loss is cooler temperatures in the cabin and windows fogging. 
  • If a rapid decompression occurs, TUC is cut in half.

9

 

 

Atmosphere Zones

Space EquivalentZone

 

 

  • >50,000ft MSL
  • Congratulations on becoming an astronaut!

10

 

 

 

Oxygen Adjustmen Calculation

 

(FiO2xP1) / P2 = FiO2 required for ascent

FiO2 = Fraction of inspired oxygen 

P1 = the pressure you ae at (on the ground)

P2 = the pressure you are flying to (cruiding altitude)

11

 

 

 

Pressure (P) Values

  • Sea Level     = 760 torr or mmHg (1 ATM)

 

  • 10k ft. MSL   = 523 torr or mmHg 

 

  • 18k ft. MSL   = 380 torr or mmHg (1/2 ATM)

 

  • 63k ft. MSL  = 0     torr or mmHg  ( 0 ATM)

12

 

 

 

Types of Hypoxia

 

 

  • Hypemic
  • Hypoxic
  • Stagnant
  • Histotoxic

13

 

 

 

Types of Hypoxia

Hypemic

What is it?

  • Redction in th O2 carrying capacity of blood

What causes it ?

  • Anemia 
  • Hemorrhae

14

 

 

 

Types of Hypoxia

Histotoxic

What is it ?

  • limits the use of available ocgen due to poisoning of the cytochrome oxidase system 

What causes it ?

  • Cyanide
  • Alcohol
  • Carbon Monoxide (CO)Nitroglycerin
  • Sodium Nitroprusside (Nipride)

15

 

 

 

Types of Hypoxia

Hypoxic

What is it ?

  • Not enough Oxygen in the air

What causes it ?

  • Low PP of oxygen at altitude
  • Deficiency in alveola O2 exchange
  • Pneumothorax
  • cardiovascular PT

16

 

 

 

types of Hypoxia

Stagnant

What is it ?

  • Blood isnt moving

What causes it ?

  • Reduced cardiac output
  • Pooling of blood
  • High G forces
  • Cardiogenic shock

17

 

 

 

Stages of Hypoxia

 

 

 

  • Indifferent
  • Compensatory
  • Disturbance
  • Critical

18

 

 

 

Stages of Hypoxia

Indifferent Stage

0 - 10,000ft. MSL

Symptoms

  • some loss of night vission at 5,000ft MSL
  • Full reasonin abilities

19

 

 

 

Stages of Hypoxia

Compensatory Stage

10,000 - 15,000ft. MSL

Symptoms

  • Increased HR
  • Increased Ventilations
  • Slowed judgment

20

 

 

 

Stages of Hypoxia

Disturbance Stage

15,000 - 20,000ft. MSL

Symptoms

  • Slurred speech
  • Impaired judgment
  • Feeling of being drunk

21

 

 

 

Stages of Hypoxia

Critical Stage

>20,000ft. MSL

Symptoms

  • Loss of consciousness
  • Death

 

No  longer able to physiologically function, death imminent

22

 

 

 

Stressors of Flight

Self Imposed

Self Imposed

(D.E.A.T.H)

  • Dehydration
  • Echaustion
  • Alcohol
  • Tobacco
  • Hypoglycemia

23

 

 

 

Stressors of Flight

Inherent

Inherent

  • Thermal Changes
  • Decreased Humidity
  • Gravitational Forces
  • Fatigue 
  • Low PP of Oxygen 
  • Barometric Pressure change
  • Noise
  • Vibration

24

 

 

 

Altitude Effects

Barondontalgia

(Teeth)

  • Occurs on ascent
  • Air trapped in fillings expands due to Boyles Law
  • Aso referred to as "Aerodontaligia"

25

 

 

 

Altitude Effects

Barotitis

(Ears)

  • Occurs on Descent
  • Air trapped in the middle ear can't vent through the clocked Eustacian Tube. 

26

 

 

 

Altitude Effects

Barosinusitis

(Sinuses)

  • Can occur on BOTH Ascent and Descent
  • Can also cause pain in the macillar teeth 
  • Is not the same as Barodontalgia; that occurs only on Ascent