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Flashcards in Flowering Plants Deck (56)
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1
Q

The function of a root is…

A

-Anchor and support the plant in the soil
-Take in (or absorb) water and minerals
-Some plants (e.g yams) store food in their roots

2
Q

The function of a stem is…

A

-Support and hold up leaves and flowers
-Transport water and minerals from the roots to the leaves and also transport food from the leaves to the roots
-Some stems store food (e.g potatoes)

3
Q

The function of leaves are…

A

-Make food in a process called photosynthesis
-Allow gases and water vapour to pass in and out
-Some leaves store food (e.g lettuce and cabbage)

4
Q

The function of a flower…

A

is to produce seeds so that te plant can reproduce

5
Q

The function of fruit is..

A

-Protect seeds
-Provides food for seeds

6
Q

Xylem…

A

transports water and minerals up the plant

7
Q

Phloem…

A

transports food from the leaves

8
Q

Transpiration

A

Is the loss of water vapour from the stomata of the leaves, supplies water to the leaves for photosynthesis, helps to cool plants (in the same way sweating helps cool the human body)

9
Q

Stomata is..

A

Are little holes on the underside of the leaves

10
Q

Transpiration stream

A

The flow of water from the roots, up through the plant, and out the leaves

11
Q

Factors that increase rate of transpiration

A

Sunlight, wind, soil, water and low humidity

12
Q

Photosynthesis is

A

The process where green plants make food using light energy

13
Q

Why are leaves and plants green?

A

Because they contain Chlorophyll which is a green chemical needed for photosynthesis

14
Q

Chlorophyll is found in…

A

Chloroplasts in plant cells

15
Q

What part of a plant has chlorophyll?

A

The leaves and any green part of the plant have chlorophyll

16
Q

Photosynthesis word equation is

A

Carbon dioxide + water (+ sunlight + chlorophyll) = glucose + oxygen

17
Q

Carbon dioxide…

A

Passes into leaves through Stomata (found on the under side of leaf)

18
Q

Water is

A

From soil, enters through roots

19
Q

Light is

A

From the sun. Absorbed by leaves due to their large flat surfaces. Provides energy needed to form food.

20
Q

Chlorophyll is..

A

Made by plants. It’s is a green pigment. Mostly found in the leaves. Absorbs light and allows photosynthesis to take place

21
Q

Factors needed to make chlorophyll

A

Carbon dioxide, water and light

22
Q

Products of chlorophyll

A

Glucose and Oxygen

23
Q

Glucose is…

A

Food made by plant to provide energy in respiration, to form starch in parts of the plant and to form cellulose

24
Q

Oxygen is..

A

Gas made by photosynthesis. Used for respiration to provide energy in the leaf. Released from the leaf into the air.

25
Q

Plant responses are

A

Tropism, Phototropism and Geotropism

26
Q

Tropism is..

A

The change in growth of a plant in response to an outside stimulus

27
Q

Phototropism is..

A

The way in which a plant changes growth in response to light

28
Q

Geotropism is..

A

The way in which a plant changes growth in response to gravity

29
Q

Respiration is..

A

The controlled release of energy from food

30
Q

Two types of respiration

A

Aerobic and and Anaerobic

31
Q

Aerobic respiration..

A

Requires oxygen

32
Q

Anaerobic respiration..

A

Does not require oxygen

33
Q

Factors of Respiration…

A

Glucose comes from the food we eat
Oxygen is removed from the air we breathe

34
Q

Products of Respiration

A

We breathe out carbon dioxide and water vapour
We use the energy throughout our day (walking, talking, thinking etc)

35
Q

Anaerobic respiration inn human muscles…

A

Produces lactic acid, which causes our muscles to cramp

36
Q

Fermentation (anaerobic respiration by microbes)..

A

Produces fermented foods. The most common of these is in beer making, where alcohol has been produced from yeast feeding glucose

37
Q

Petals are used to..

A

Attract insects into the flower; they may have guidelines on them and be scented

38
Q

The sepal is..

A

When the flower is protected while it is in bud by the sepals, these may be coloured green or have the colour of the petals
They are often brightly coloured to attract the insects

39
Q

The stamen produces..

A

The male gamete (male sex cell) for fertilisation

40
Q

The carpel

A

produces the female gamete (female sex cell) for fertilisation.

41
Q

Pollination is..

A

The transfer of pollen grains from an anther (male part) to a stigma (female part)

42
Q

Insect reproduction happens when…

A

Insects who visit the flower in order to obtain pollen or nectar as food: the insects rub against the sticky stigma and so the pollen (which was gathered from the stamen of one plant) can end up on the carpel of another plant.

43
Q

Wind pollination…

A

blows the pollen from one flower to another

44
Q

Self-pollination occurs when..

A

the male and female parts of the flower are ripe at the same time and when the pollen can fall onto the sticky stigma.

45
Q

Fertilisation is..

A

The union of a nucleus of the pollen grain with the nucleus of the egg

46
Q

seed development

A

After fertilisation the egg develops into a seed. The parent plant provides the food for growth.
The seed is provided with energy and raw materials to enable it to become established after dispersal, provided the environment is suitable

47
Q

Structure of a seed

A

Testa, radicle, plumule, food supply for seed

48
Q

Testa is..

A

The tough outer covering

49
Q

Radicle is..

A

The part growing down out of the seed (grows to form the root; think ‘R’ for Radicle, ‘R’ for Root)

50
Q

Plumule is…

A

The part growing up (this grows to form the shoot)

51
Q

Food supply for seed is…

A

The inside of the seed contains the store of food

52
Q

Dispersal

A

If the seed didn’t get dispersed the they would all simply fall to the ground and there wouldn’t be enough food,light or water for all to develop. So they need to get away from the parent plant. There are many ways in which a seed can be dispersed.

53
Q

Germination is..

A

The resumption of growth after a period of dormancy

54
Q

Moisture, oxygen and heat are necessary for…

A

Germination

55
Q

Asexual reproduction involves…

A

The formation of new individual from the cell(s) of a single parent

56
Q

Examples of plants that reproduce asexually include..

A

Grass, strawberries, daffodils, onions and potatoes