Fluid Balance And Blood Products Flashcards Preview

Acute Medical Conditions > Fluid Balance And Blood Products > Flashcards

Flashcards in Fluid Balance And Blood Products Deck (38):
1

Fluid balance =

Intake-outtake

2

Total body weight=

Body weight x 0.6

3

What is fundamental for homeostasis?

The movement of solutes to help move water

4

Osmosis causes ...

Water to shift, aiming for equal solute concentration

5

What do plasma proteins (albumin, fibrigin,globulins) produce?

Oncotic pressure

6

During inflammation ...

Proteins leak out due to blood vessel
changes

7

The arterial end of the capillary has ...

High hydrostatic pressure and low oncotic pressure
Fluid leaves the capillary

8

The venous end of the capillary has ...

Low hydrostatic pressure and high oncotic pressure
Waste products enter the capillary

9

The biochemical signs of dehydration:

Raised urea and normal createnin

10

The biochemical signs of AKI:

Raised urea and raised createnin

11

What are the ranges of mean arterial pressure (MAP)

Normal = 70-110mmHg
Poor perfusion =

12

Mean arterial pressure (MAP) =

Cardiac output (CO) x systolic vascular resistance (SVR) + central venous pressure (CVP)

13

What is the normal value for central venous pressure?

3-8 mmHg

14

What must be considered for pts who are NBM?

Does the pt require fluids as they can become dehydrated very quickly

15

What are the problems with pts who have oedemas?

Increased capillary permeability can lead to sepsis and cellulitis
Increased venous pressure can lead to heart failure
Decreased oncotic pressure and albumin can lead to liver disease

16

What are the symptoms of pulmonary oedema?

Crackling noise
Decreased SpO2
Increased respiratory rate
Shortness of breath
Pink frowfy sputum

17

What is the treatment for pulmonary oedema?

Respiratory assessment Supplementary O2
Change of position
Supportive cough
Diuretics

18

Covert compensated =

Reduced intravascular volume

19

Overt compensated =

Tachy and wide pulse pressure

20

Decompensated =

Shock

21

How to manage pts with fluid deficits?

Treat cause
Provide fluids - best route, type of fluid, quantity, how quickly
Crystalloid fluids (solutes of lower molecular weight)
Colloid fluids (large molecules which are artificial)
Fluid challenge

22

What are the risks of IV therapy?

Infection
Sepsis
Pain
Bruising
Site tissuing
Air embolus leading to a PE
Fluid going into the tissue instead of the blood vessel
Fluids being given too fast

23

What are some examples of Crystalloid fluids?

0.9% Nacl
Hartmanns
5% dextrose

24

What are some examples of colloid fluids?

Frozen plasma
Blood
Albumin

25

Why do pts require red blood cell transfusions?

Blood loss and to enhance O2 carrying capacity of blood

26

Why do pts with AKI become anaemic?

Due to a decrease in decreased erythropoietin

27

The life span of blood is ...

35 days

28

What is important to remember for women of child bearing age?

The blood needs to be cross matched, be Rhesus matched and be Kell-

29

Who is the universal donor and universal recipient for red blood transfusion?

Universal donor = O
Universal recipient = AB

30

Who is the universal donor and universal recipient for blood plasma transfusion?

Universal donor = AB
Universal recipient = O

31

What are the adverse effects of a blood transfusion?

Acute haemolysis due to mismatch
Anaphylaxis due to preservatives in blood
Transfusion associated lung injury (breathless, SOB - can happen hrs after, immediate CXR required)
Urticaria

32

What to look for if a pt is having a reaction to a blood transfusion?

Itch and rash
Broncho spasm
Compromised circulation
Fever/chills
Back pain
Brown urine
Sudden anxiety

33

What is the life span of platelets?

5-7 days

34

How long does it take to transfuse platelets?

30 minutes

35

Why would a pt require a platelet transfusion?

For enhancement of coagulation of blood

36

Why would a pt require a fresh frozen plasma (FFP) transfusion?

For replacement of coagulation factors

37

How long does it take to transfuse fresh frozen plasma (FFP)?

30 minutes

38

What is important to remember about a fresh frozen plasma transfusion?

Pts can have drastic reactions