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Flashcards in Fluid Therapy Deck (19)
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Describe inevitable water loss?

Water that is lost through respiration or through the skin.


Describe the components of ECF?

a. Intravascular fluid – volume of blood within the circulation includes plasma component.
b. Interstitial fluid – bathes and surrounds cells (found in between tissue spaces).
c. Smallest component of ECF often not calculated. Transcellular fluid separated from plasma and interstitial fluid by cellular barriers e.g. cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), synovial fluid.


Describe what would happen to a cell if the interstitial fluid became hypotonic and why?

The cell would expand and potentially burst (lysis) because the hypotonic fluid has less solute than the cell and therefore water moves into the cell.


Describe the term diffusion?

Movement of molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration until they are equal.


Define the term Anion?

Negatively charged electrolyte.


Define the term Cation?

Positively charged electrolyte.


Where is the greatest concentration of Potassium found?



Where is the greatest concentration of Bicarbonate found?



Where is the greatest concentration of Calcium found?



List the 3 types of buffer systems that helps to maintain acid-base balance?

Chemical, respiratory and renal buffer systems.


How does carbon dioxide link to the ph levels in the blood?

Carbon dioxide in blood is directly correlated with acidity; The more CO2 in the blood; the more acidic it is. Increased respiratory rate will exhale more co2 to lower acidity in blood.


Give 2 conditions that may cause respiratory acidosis?

Bronchitis, pneumonia, emphysema.


Briefly explain why metabolic alkalosis may occur with vomiting?

Vomiting stomach contents therefore losing acid.


How will the respiratory system compensate for metabolic acidosis?

The respiratory system will increase breathing to blow off more CO2 in an attempt to reduce acidity in the blood.


Define primary water loss?

Water loss without losing electrolytes e.g. through reduction in intake or fever.


Describe how hydration status can be assessed in the dog?

Clinical history, clinical exam (CRT, MM, skin elasticity), laboratory analysis, clinical measurements.


Describe the equipment that a VN should prepare prior to iv fluid therapy in a 5 year old Cocker Spaniel?

Fluid bag, giving set, iv catheter, tape, vetrap, clippers, surgical scrub, gauze swabs, surgical spirit, drip stand.


Give 2 complications that may appear with iv fluid therapy?

Air embolism, thrombophlebitis, thrombus formation, septicaemia.


Select the correct fluids for the following cases?
a. The vomiting dog
b. A 10 year old bitch with pyometra
c. A 3 year old cat with severe haemorrhaging

a. The vomiting dog – 0.9% sodium chloride
b. A 10 year old bitch with pyometra – Hartmanns solution or lactated Ringers
c. A 3 year old cat with severe haemorrhaging – whole blood