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How are anticipated threats managed in the Threat and Error Application Model

Managing anticipated threats through briefings prior to encountering the threat. Crews will discuss the highest threat and discuss a mitigation strategy.


Example of anticipated threats.

Low weather at destination and airport unable to take as many airplanes. Threats is potential delay due to bad weather. Mitigation strategy is to add more fuel and coordinate with DX.


What is the first step when encountering an Unanticipated threat

Fly the Aircraft, get aircraft in a stable condition where threat can be safely managed.


What role should captain take PM or PF?

Take the PM role assigned duties and use all available resources to find a solution.


Once aircraft is under control and captain is PM, what is the next step?

Is it a Time or No Time threat? How much time does the crew have before the threat needs to be managed for safety of flight.


What are threats without time?

Fire, Smoke or life threatening. Threats without time should have been previously planed for, allowing the crew to "ACT" immediately.


What are your option in a No Time Threat that is not Fire, Smoke, Life treating?

In those cases there is sufficient time to evaluate different courses of action, gather data and decided which one is the most effective for the given circumstances "PLAN"


Once a solution has been implemented in a No Time Threat what do you do next?

Evaluate its effectiveness and if its giving the desire results and identify additional threats that might come up from the decision you implemented.


After "ACT" or "PLAN" has taken place what is the next step in the Threat and Error Application Model

Communicate to see if your decision was correct or you need to come up with a new course of action. Communicate with the people or lives are affected by the choices made.


What is the decision making process?

Gather information, analyze it, and make decisions.

It helps the person assess and manage risk and make accurate and timely decisions.


How would you make decisions for various situations

1. Define the problem
2. Identify the factors that caused the symptoms. If their is smoke in the cabin just don’t attack the symptom find out way such as unknown fire or glycol from deice
3. Identify possible solutions.
4. Gather data - expand the team to solicit as much info from everyone to make a good decision.
5. Implement the decision. - this could mean shutting down a system diverting to another airport.
6 Evaluate. - if your decision has solved the problem or other problem has come up and can lead you back to the beginning of the model.


Communication during decision making.

Communicate to identify the problem, seek alternatives, and implement a solution. Involve the people closes to the problem.


Affective use of all available resources

To make an informed decision. The pilot must be aware of the resources found inside and outside the cockpit.

Learning to recognize all available resources is crucial for CRM and recognizing what resources to use during a time critical situation


How long is a SkyWest provided temp certificate valid for?

72 hours


If crew member looses ID what’s steps need to be taken

Contact MOD and get a identification Letter from crew support to continue working the trip.


High Mins Captain

Add 1/2 mile to visibility and 100 feet to DH.

For filing if weather below 1/2 add on you need and alternate


Alternate Airport for high mins captain

1. Filing minimums are still calculated the same way.

2. Never use less than 300 feet for DH and no lass than 1 mile.


After your check ride you need to have 100 hours with in

120 days. This includes IOE


When SIC has less the 100 hours captain must make all takeoffs and landings under the following conditions.

1. Special Airports
2. Visibility equal or less than 3/4
3. RVR equal or less than 4000
4. Breaking action less than good. Rcc of 5 or less
5. Crosswind greater than
6. Windshear at airport


If both PIC and SIC have less than how many hours they can’t fly together

75 hours


Special Airports Restrictions

If WX is less than 3 miles or less than 1000 feet you need

1. Made a takeoff and landing with in last 12 months
2. Use pictorial means


Flight time limits. Block

1000 in 365 rolling days

100 hrs in 28 days


What are FDP limits

60 hours in 7 days

190 hours in 28 days


3 items that make Complete Airworthiness Check

1. Internal and external check pre flight
2. MX release signature on white flight log sheet
3. Review discrepancies in the MX log / DMI sheet / ni open write ups


Can you land or depart with a missing wind report?



When can you land or depart with a missing ceiling report?

Only when the IAP or DP does not require it


Can you land or depart with missing temperature?

No. Get it from DX


Can you depart or land with missing altimeter?

No unless approach has alternate source


Can ERJ dispatch to airport and alternate that only have GPS approaches

Yes. Because of dual FMS


How do you know if you can use an approach to file as an alternate for an airport?

Look at the back of 10-9 chart and look for NA. If NA we can not use that approach to calculate alternate minimums


Explain Single Approach Method for filing as alternate

The airport must have 1 operational facility we add 400 feet to HAT and 1 sm to visibility requirements. Approach can be straight in, circling, precision or non precision.


Explain Double Approach Method for filing as alternate

1. Requieres 2 straight in approaches
2. Two suitable runways. Opposites ends of one runway are ok. Using 2 different nav aids
3. Add 200 feet HAT to the highest of the two and add 1/2 to the highest visibility the two.


When is an alternate requiered

1. When WX is below 2000’ and 3SM
2. Airport reporting freezing drizzle or freezing rain.
3. Rcc of 1 on all usable runways are being reported.
4. If the airport has not instrument approach


When is a 2nd alternate required

1. Using Exception 17347
2. Both destination and first alternate are both marginal. Marginal means visibility at destination and filling alternate minimums at alternate


When is a takeoff alternate required

When landing minimums at takeoff airport are below minimums. Alternate must be with in 1 hour still air and single engine. Normal cruise speed


What items must be included in a release

1. Trip ID
2. IFR
3. Minimum Fuel
4. WX
5. Aircraft ID
6. Departure. Destination and all alternates
7. MELs. CDLs


When would you need a new flight release

1. Flight delayed more than 2 hours.
2. MEL affecting performance
3. Aircraft change
4. Crew members change
5. Flight returns the field


How much fuel must a flight depart with

Fly to destination than most distant alternate than 45 minutes.


When must you contact dispatch regarding fuel increase or decrease.

Any increase. Or a decrease of more than 200lbs or 50% of contingency which ever is higher.


What items need to be reported to dispatch

1. Cruise altitude change more than 4000
2. Will be more than 15 minutes late.
3 fuel changes
4. Airplane exceeds more than 100 miles of original flight plan.


When do you decorate emergency fuel

When landing with less than 30 minutes


Who is authorize to use Jumpseat on an international flight

1. FAA
2. DOD
3. SkyWest check airman


What documents does SkyWest Pilot need to jump seat.

1. Airman Certificate
2. Company ID
3. Cass Verified


What documents does non-SkyWest pilot need to jumpseat

1. Medical
2. Airman Certificate
3. Company ID
4. Cass Verified


What is Level 1 Security Threat

1. Non-Violant - Verbal Harassment
-- Advice ATC and DX.

2. Divert if necessary Law Enforcement meet us at landing


What is Level 2 Security Threat

1. Physical Abusive Behavior

-- Advice ATC and DX.

2. Divert if necessary Law Enforcement meet us at landing


What is Level 3 Security Threat

- Death or serious injury
- Bomb or Terrorist threat
- Weapons Displayed

- Advice ATC and DX
- 7700
- Divert to nearest suitable airport as per ISC


What is Level 4 Security threat

Attempted or actual breach of the flight deck

1. Defend the Flight Deck
2. Declare an emergency 7500
3. Notify Dispatch
4. Land s soon as possible


Takeoff and Landings are prohibited when the following is occurring.

1. Braking action is reported NILL
2. Braking action is poor with crosswind of 10kts
3. RCC 1 or 2 with crosswind of 10kts


What is TALPA

A way for the FAA to standardize safety reporting for runway conditions.


As PIC what are your duties and responsibilities

1. Hold a current proper Medical
2. Properly trained and qualified
3. Opérate with in the SOMO, FOM, OpsSpecs, FARs,
4. Jointly responsible for the flight with dispatcher.
5. Responsable for safety of Aircraft, Passengers, Crew, cargo.
6. Stay up to date on policy
7. Helps develop FO
8. On time departure.
7. Responsable for pre-flight.


When is an ICE briefing required

1. Start of a Trip
2. Crew Change.


What is TEM

A system that Provides techniques for maximizing safety margins

A system that allows crews to effectively manage threats, errors and undesired aircraft states.


What are the steps of TEM

Threat -> Error -> Undesired Aircraft State -> Accident or Incedent


What are Operational Threats?

Aircraft system malfunction, adverse WX, passengers issued, cabin malfunctions


What are Latent Threats

Complacency, fatigue, personal issues


What are the 2 types of Threats

1. Operational

2. Latent


What are some operational Threats

1. Aircraft Systems Failure
2. Pax issues
3. Cabin malfunctions
4. Wx


What are some Latent Threats

Complacency, Fatigue, Personal Issues


What is an error in the TEM

An error is a crew action that reduces safety margins due to:

1. Lack of experience
2. Rushed
3. Distractions
4. Stress


What is Undesired Aircraft State in the TEM

Unacceptable condition of the aircraft due to crew error or not fixing the error decision.


How do you mitigate threats?

2. Communicate
3. Briefings


What is the TEAM

Tool for crew members to mitigate threats by planning in advanced with crew briefings for anticipated threats and simply the process for handling unanticipated threats


Describe the ICE Brief

I - Introductions -> Docs, ID, Fit for Duty

C - Communication -> Evac Signal, Emergency Communicating, Using their full name, sterile flight deck.

E - Entry Signal - > Security Entry signal


When do you perform an "ALL FLIGHTS" Crew Brief and with what crew members

It is done every flight with all crew members,

Items such as.
- MX Items
- Leos
- WX
- Taxi Times
- Diversions and WX
- PX Issues
- Announcements


When is the Departure Brief Completed?

Prior to performing the Before Start Check


When should you conduct an Arrival Brief

Low Work load prior to TOD


Examples of Unanticipated Threats?

1. System Malfunctions
2. PX Medical Issues
3. Security threats


What is the first thing to do in an Unanticipated Threat?

Fly the Aircraft.


What are the Roles of the PF during an Unanticipated threat?

1. Fly the aircraft
2. ATC
3. Situational awareness
4. Keep PM in the loop


What are the Roles of the PM during an Unanticipated threat?

1. Run checklist
2. Make time to allow an informed decision
3. Situational awareness
4. Use CRM to involve people


What are unanticipated Threats with time?

1. Wx
2. PX issues
3. Last Minute runway changes


What is the Pilot Monitoring Duties?

Maintain situational awareness of the aircrafts flight path, cross checking the PF activities and bringing up any concerns


When communicating Turbulence with the FA what phraseology do you tell her?

Light Chop or Moderate Turbualce