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Flashcards in Food Flavours Deck (152)
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1

what are sensations produced by food in the mouth and nose?

taste: sweet, sour, salty, bitter, umami

odor: pungent, putrid, floral, ehtereal, minty, musty, camphoraceous

mouthfeel: pain, temp, tactile sensation

2

how are flavours perceived?

interactions between nasal cavity, receptors in mouth, teeth and jaws sends signals to the CNS for translation into what flavours are perceived

3

what is found in food that elicites sweet taste?

electronegtive elements in molecules

common elements are O and N:

- O: alcohols (glycerols and glucose), aldehydes, cinnamaldehyde

- N: peptides and amino acids

4

what is used as a reference for sweetness of sugars?

glucose

assigned number 1

5

what sugars are the same sizes but different levels of sweetness?

lactose and sucrose

glucose and fructose

6

what are the two groups of amino acids? what are these groups based on?

D and L amino acids

based on their optical activities (one rotates clockwise and the other rotates anticlockwise)

this results in differences due to interactions in the mouth receptors

7

are D or L amino acids sweeter?

D is always sweeter than L

8

how is sucrose broken down?

invertase breaks down glucose and fructose bond

results in a mixture of glucose and fructose, which is sweeter than the solution of sucrose (known as invert sugars)

9

what monosaccharides compose sucrose?

glucose and fructose

10

what are invert sugars?

broken down components of sucrose (glucose and fructose)

glucose and fructose (the invert sugars) are sweeter than the original sugar

11

what does amylase break down in corn syrup?

glucose hydrolysate

12

what is high fructose corn syrup broken down into?

what enzyme does this?

glucose isomerase breaks down fructose into hydrolysate, comprised of glucose and fructose

13

what are traditional sweeteners?

sucrose (regular sugar)
invert sugars
corn syrup
high fructose corn syrup (HFCS)
maltodextrose

14

what are examples of food used traditionally as sweeteners?

honey
maple
molasses

15

what compounds are found in honey?

fructose (33-40%)
glucose (32-40%
water (15-20%)
significant phenolic content

16

what sugars are found in maple?

glucose
fructose
sucrose

17

what are molasses?

dark syrup liquid left after recovery of sugar from either sugar cane or sugar beet

18

describe how molasses are made

1. crush sugar cane to create juice. Heat juice to concentrate. Separate sugar crystals and syrup (molasses)

2. continue to heat syrup. Separate into crystals and syrup (cane molasses)

3. continue to heat. Separate into crystals and another syrup (black syrup molasses)

19

how does the color and viscosity change as you keep heating molasses syrup?

they increase

20

what is found in sugar cane?

vit B6
iron
Mg
K
manganese
calcium

21

high intensity synthetic sweeteners are ____ and ____ than traditional sweeteners

cheaper: easy production

less caloric: synthetic sweeteners are not as readily metabolized

22

what is the result of synthetic sweeteners not being as readily metabolized?

less calories

mouth bacteria don't break them down to acids, which cause decay

23

what are factors that affect sweetener use?

-cost
-calories
-sweeter equivalence with
-sugar (isosweetness)
-solubility and viscosity (must be H2O soluble and dissolve at the same rate)

24

order the polyols according to relative sweetness

1. xylitol (isosweet with sucrose)
2. malitol
3. manitol
4. sorbitol
5. isomalt
6. polyextros

25

what sweetener is isosweet as sucrose?

xylitol

26

what is synergy

mixing multiple sugars and sweeteners (who have different viscosity and sweetness) together in solution

27

what are polyols?

polyhydric alcohols

28

what are common food products that use synergy? what is their ratio used?

chewing gum: 3:2 xylitol to sorbitol

sugar free products: 4:1 ratio of maltitol and xylitol

29

which is the sweetest polyol?

xylitol

isosweet to sucrose

30

does polyol have an aftertaste?

no