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Medicine II: Orthopedics > Foot & Ankle > Flashcards

Flashcards in Foot & Ankle Deck (58)
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1

Pes Planus

"Flat Feet"

2

Cause of Pes Planus

Due to loss of medial longitudinal arch

3

Pes Planus in Pediatrics

Pediatric- usually develop a normal arch after time of minimal flat arch

4

Pes Planus in Adults

Occurs in 20%. Can predispose to posterior tibialis tendonitits. Can be seen with posterior tibialis tendon rupture. Also seen with spring ligament complex injury.

5

Treatment of Pes Planus

Normal benign (if flexible) and rarely requires surgery

6

Foot Drop

A peroneal nerve injury is a peripheral nerve injury that affects a patient’s ability to lift the foot at the ankle. While foot drop injury is a neuromuscular disorder, it can also be a symptom of a more serious injury, such as a nerve compression or herniated disc.

7

Patient Presentation with Foot Drop

Steppage gait is usually seen w/ foot drop, secondary to peripheral motor unit disease. Drag feet or lift them high, with knees flexed, bring them down with slap onto floor. Cannot walk on heels, Tibialis anterior and toe extensors are weak

8

Causes of Foot Drop

Foot drop injury can be caused by an injury to the spinal cord or from other underlying diseases. Sometimes, drop foot is a complication from hip replacement surgery, or other injuries (e.g., knee or joint dislocation or fracture, herniated disc).

9

Treatment for Foot Drop

Orthotics, including braces or foot splints, which may be custom-built into the patient’s shoe. Physical therapy, including gait training

10

Hallux Valgus

Bunion, Lateral deviation of the Hallux (great toe) on the 1st metatarsal.

11

Who is most likely to develop Hallux Valgus?

More common in Females

12

What is a risk factor for Hallux Valgus?

FHx: Strong genetic predisposition

13

Treatment for Hallux Valgus

Wide, low heeled shoes; night splinting, orthoses, medial bunion pads or surgical referral.

14

Mallet Toe Deformity

Hyperflexion of DIP joint

15

Treatment for Mallet Toe Deformity

Footwear modification (wide toe box), dorsal foot pads, or referral for surgery.

16

Hammer Toe Deformity

Flexion of PIP with extension of DIP

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What toe is usually affect with Hammer Toe Deformity

2nd toe

18

T/F: Mallet Toe Deformity is the most common deformity of the lesser toes.

False, Hammer Toe Deformity is

19

Treatment for Hammer Toe Deformity

Footwear modification (wide toe box), dorsal foot pads, or referral for surgery.

20

Cause or Achilles Tendon Rupture

Acute onset due to possible hx of Achilles tendonitis or a sudden extreme forced plantar flexion.

21

Physical Exam for Achilles Tendon Rupture

Tender to palpation on Achilles tendon with swelling and eccyhmosis. Pain with dorsiflexion and resisted plantar flexion. Palpate for defect or gap.

22

Special Tests for Achilles Tendon Rupture

Thompsons Test

23

Treatment for Achilles Tendon Rupture

Move toward conservative treatment. Short leg cast in equinous for 4 wks and then start walking boot. Consider operative treatment for younger/athletic patients.

24

Achilles Tendonitis

Describe me

25

Cause of Achilles Tendonitis

Chronic onset due to overuse. May be due to specific injury.

26

Physical Exam for Achilles Tendonitis

Tender to palpation on midpoint or insertion point of Achilles tendon. Pain with dorsiflexion and resisted plantar flexion.

27

Treatment for Achilles Tendonitis

Walking boot with heel lifts, eccentric PT, iontophoresis, NTG patches

28

Lower Leg Stress Fracture

Anatomy:
Tibia (high risk) or fibula (low risk)
History:
Chronic onset, “shin splints”, overuse, old shoes, localized pain, training errors

29

Presentation of Lower Leg Stress Fractures

TTP on fx site with swelling and possible ecchymosis. NVI. Compression test

30

Treatment for Lower Leg Stress Fractures

Non-wt bearing for at least 6w