Flashcards in Forces Deck (42):

1

## What is a vector?

### Has magnitude and direction.

2

## What is a scalar?

### A physical quantity that has magnitude.

3

## Examples of scalars

###
Distance

Speed

Time

Energy

Mass

4

##
Examples of vectors

###
Displacement

Velocity

Acceleration

Force

5

## What do forces make an object do?

###
Start moving

Stop moving

Change speed

Change direction

Change shape

6

## What are the contact forces?

###
Friction

Air resistance

Reaction

Tension

7

## What are the none contact forces?

###
Gravitational force

Magnetic forces

Electrostatic forces

8

## What is weight?

### The weight of an object is the force acting on it due to gravity. Weight is measured in Newtons (N).

9

## What is mass?

### The mass of an object depends on the quantity of matter in it. Mass is measured in kilograms (Kg).

10

## What is the equation for weight?

###
Weight = mass x gravitational field strength

W= m x g

11

## What is terminal velocity?

### Terminal velocity is when the object reaches a constant velocity when the frictional force in it is equal and opposite to its weight. The resultant force is then 0 so the acceleration is 0.

12

## What is the resultant force of an object released in fluid?

### The weight - frictional force

13

## What is the centre of mass of an object?

### The centre of mass of an object is the point at which it’s mass can be thought of as being concentrated.

14

## What two factors affect the stability of an object?

###
The width of the base of an object

The height of its centre of mass- higher centre of mass = less stable

15

## How do you work out the centre of mass of an irregular shape?

###
Cut out irregular shape

Put hole in corner

Use clamp stand to suspend it and draw vertical line using plumb line

Repeat hanging the shape from different corners

Where all lines meet is the centre of mass.

16

## What are forces in an interaction pair?

### They are equal in size and opposite in direction.

17

## What is the resultant force when an object is balanced?

### Resultant force= 0

18

## What happens when forces are imbalanced?

### The object can change speed direction or shape.

19

## What is work done?

### Work is the amount of energy transferred to move a certain distance

20

## What is the equation for work done?

### Work done= force x distance

21

## What is Hooke’s law?

### The extension of a spring is directly proportional to the force applied as long as the limit of proportionality isn’t exceeded.

22

## What is the equation for force applied?

###
Force applied= spring constant x extension

F= k x e

23

## Parallelogram of forces

###
Need a scale

Draw parallelogram using angles and lengths (see book)

Find the length of the dotted line

24

## Average speeds

###
Person walking: 1.5

Person cycling: 6

Person running: 3

Wind on windy day: 18

Car in motorway: 31

Car in built up area: 13

Sound in air:330

* all in m/s

Speeds are rarely constant, called ununiform

25

## What is speed?

### Speed is a scalar. It is how fast you are travelling

26

## What is velocity?

### Velocity is a vector. It is speed in a given direction

27

## What is acceleration?

### Acceleration is the change in speed or velocity over time. If negative it is called deceleration.

28

## What is the equation for acceleration?

### A= change in velocity/ time taken

29

## How do you find distance on a velocity time graph?

### Area under the graph

30

## What is the equation for a constantly accelerating body?

###
V^2 = u^2 + 2as

Final velocity = initial velocity + (2 x acceleration x displacement)

31

## What is Newton’s 1st law?

###
An object at rest stays at rest and an object in motion stays in motion with the same speed and in the same direction unless acted on by an imbalanced force

The tendency of an object to stay at rest or move in uniform motion is called inertia. The inertia of an object depends on its mass.

32

## What is Newton’s 2nd law?

### The acceleration of an object is proportional to the resultant force of an object and inversely proportional to the mass of an object.

33

## What is Newton’s 3rd law?

### For every action there is an equal and opposite action. Forces which are in equilibrium are equal and opposite.

34

## What is the equation for force?

### Force = mass x acceleration

35

## Factors effecting top speed

###
Surface of road

Car weight

Friction

Air resistance/ aerodynamics/ stream lining

Acceleration

Power of engine

36

## How do you find stopping distance?

### Stopping distance= thinking distance + braking distance

37

## Factors effecting thinking distance

###
Tiredness

Drugs

Alcohol

Distractions (people phone music)

38

## Factors effecting braking distance

###
Surface of road

Quality of brakes

Quality of tyres

Weight of car

Speed of car

Weather

Gradient of the road

39

## What is the equation for momentum?

###
Momentum= mass x velocity

Momentum is measured in kg m/s

40

## What is momentum affected by?

###
Mass: larger mass= larger momentum

Velocity: the faster the object moves the larger the momentum

41

## What happens to momentum when no external forces act?

###
Momentum is conserved

Momentum before= momentum after

42