Flashcards in Forensic Field Skills Deck (525)
What did Locard believe?
No matter where a criminal goes or what he does, he will leave something behind and take something away.
What is Locard's principle?
Every contact leaves a trace
What did Karl Landsteiner do?
He discovered human blood groups in 1901.
What did Revenstorf do?
In 1904 he claimed that diatoms could be used to distinguish ante-mortem from post-mortem drowning.
Where was the first British forensics lab established?
When was the FBI established and by whom?
1905, Theodore Roosevelt
When did Watson and Crick discover the structure of DNA?
When were dental records first used for ID?
What does AFIS stand for?
Automated fingerprint identification system
Who first used Gas chromotography - mass spectrometry for forensic use?
Zoro and Hadley in 1976
Who discovered a method of identifying individuals from DNA?
Sir Alec Jeffreys
When was DNA profiling first used to solve a crime?
1986 (Colin Pitchfork)
When did world's first national DNA database in the UK commence operations?
What is the CSI effect?
The unrealistic expectation of jurors wanting to see DNA, fingerprints and trace evidence.
When did the forensic science service launch the UK's first online footwear coding and detection management system?
What does the CSI effect not consider?
1. Not all scenes are evidence-rich2. Not all techniques/equipment seen on TV really exists.3. Evidence may be compromised
What is a crime scene?
Any location where a criminal offence has occurred or any place that contains physical evidence.
What is the golden rule of crime scene investigation/management?
Never touch, change or alter anything until it has been identified, documented and measured...when a body or article has been moved, it can never be restored to its original position.
Exceptions to the golden rule:
1. If the potential exists that an item of evidence could be used to cause harm/death to someone at the scene.2. If the potential exists for an item/evidence to be lost/contaminated or destroyed.
What is the role of the first response officer?
Approach -> Preserve life -> Arrest perpetrators -> Safety issues -> Secure and protect -> Identify witnesses.
What is the meaning of secure?
Secure is to "close access".
What is the meaning of protect?
To "deny access"
What measures can be taken to secure a scene?
1. Tape2. Cones3. Police officers4. Vehicles5. Fences6. Walls7. Buildings8. Any impermeable landmark
What is an inner cordon?
The area of the incident and crime scene.
What is the outer cordon?
Seals off an extensive, surrounding the inner cordon. All access and exit points will be controlled by police. The control/command vehicles of emergency services will be positioned between the inner and outer cordons.
What is a common approach path?
The only entrance to a scene.
Who to deny access to?
Anyone who is not there to record, collect or preserve evidence.
Generic roles of the first response officer
1. Access scene2. Establish communication3. Emergency services deployed4. Commence scene log5. Protect any transient evidence6. Try to identify deceased and suspects7. Gather details of potential witnesses8. Conduct preliminary risk assessments
The role of the first supervisory officer
1. Reviews first officers works2. Sets perimeter of scene/cordon/CAP