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Flashcards in Fractures Deck (86):
1

When does an olecranon fracture occur

in a fall onto the tip of the elbow

2

What is a complication in an olecranon fracture

the tricep contracts pulling the fragment away from the ulnar

3

What is the treatment for an olecranon fracture

if hairline - splint for 2 weeks then mobilise
if displaced - internal fixation with a band
if comminuted - internal fixation with plates and screws

4

How does a fracture of the neck of the radius at the elbow occur

fall onto an outstretched hand
fall onto the elbow less common

5

what is a fracture of the neck of the radius usually combined with

dislocation of elbow
dislocation of ulnar

6

What will the patient present with if they have a radial neck fracture

pain on twisting arm and limited motion in elbow
elbow often bruised/swollen
tenderness on outside of elbow

7

What criteria is used for radial neck fractures

Mason (types 1,2,3)

8

What is the treatment for a radial neck fracture

hairline - sling only
if mason 2/3 ORIF

9

What is a galeazzi fracture

fracture of the distal radius with dislocation of the ulnar joint at the wrist

10

How does a galeazzi fracture occur

a fall onto an outstretched hand
direct blow (RTA)

11

How would someone with a Galeazzi fracture present

pain at wrist and forearm
forearm looks bent
swelling of forearm

12

How is a galeazzi fracture treated

in kids/ tiny hairline - casting for 6 weeks
in adults - ORIF with plates and screws

13

What is a monteggio fracture

fracture of the ulna with dislocation of the radius at the elbow

14

What will a monteggio fracture present with

pain and swelling
possible bent forearm

15

what is the treatment for monteggio fracture

children/ hairline - casting 6 weeks
in adults - usually need an ORIF if >10 degrees angulation

16

What is a nightstick fracture

isolated ulnar fracture

17

How is a nightstick fracture usually treated

casting

18

What is a colles fracture

dinner fork deformity
radial fracture with dorsal displacement of ulna

19

How does a colles fracture occur

FOOSH

20

What is the complications of colles fracture

carpal tunnel syndrome
late rupture of the extensor pollicis longus

21

what is the treatment for a colles fracture

can be reduced and put in a cast
if a greater degree of angulation - needs ORIF

22

What is a smiths fracture

garden spade deformity
radial fracture with volar displacement of the ulna

23

How does a smiths fracture occur

fall onto the back of the hand

24

What is the treatment for a smiths fracture

always ORIF - these are very unstable fractures

25

what are the complications of smiths fracture

damage to the ulnar nerve
carpal tunnel syndrome

26

What is a bartons fracture

intra-articular fracture of the radius involving either the volar/dorsal rim

27

What is the treatment or Bartons fracture

usually ORIF

28

How does a fracture of the scaphoid usually occur

FOOSH

29

What is the complications of a scaphoid fracture

AVN
non-union

30

What is the presentation of a scaphoid fracture

tenderness in the anatomical snuffbox

31

what is the investigation for scaphoid fracture

4 view X ray

32

What is the treatment for a scaphoid fracture

plaster cast 6-12 weeks - if undisplaced
a single screw - if displaced

33

what is tennis elbow

lateral epicondylitis
microtears to the tendon that extends the wrist

34

What will tennis elbow present with

tenderness on the lateral part of the elbow
pain on extension of the wrist
pain on rotating palm upwards under resistance

35

What is the treatment for tennis elbow

ice, analgesia, NSAIDs
avoid sport till healed
steroid injections for short term relief
if still not fixed after 3 months - surgery

36

What is golfers elbow

medial epicondylitis
microtears to the tendon that flexes the wrist

37

What is the presentation of golfers elbow

pain on medial part of elbow
weakness of grip strength (due to inflammation causing compression of the ulnar nerve)

38

What is the treatment for golfers elbow

the same as tennis elbow

39

What is a Bony bankart lesion

when a bit of the glenoid rim is broken during anterior shoulder dislocation

40

What is a Hill-sachs lesion

when the humerus hits of of the socket and causes the humeral head to have an indent in it

41

Shoulder dislocation is usually (anterior/posterior)

anterior 95%

42

What is the treatment for shoulder dislocations

analgesia - morphine
lignocaine
reduce (milch procedure) and sling

43

What is a complication of shoulder dislocation

axillary nerve damage - weak deltoid

44

What is the complication in supracondylar fractures

anterior interosseous nere damage (branch off the median)

45

What is the commonest cause of a humeral shaft fracture

FOOSH
direct blow in RTA

46

What is the treatment for a humeral shaft fracture

if up to 30 degree angulation - sling
if >30 degree angulation - ORIF

47

What is the complication in humeral shaft fractures

radial nerve damage - wrist drop and loss of sensation in the 1st dorsal web space

48

What is the other name for frozen shoulder

adhesive capsulitis - due to the thickening of the capsule and joint synovium

49

What will someone with frozen shoulder present with

loss of external rotation first
pain and stiffness
will not be able to move joint on passive or active movement

50

What are the causes of frozen shoulder

post-traumatic
post-op
diabetes
idiopathic

51

What is the treatment for frozen shoulder

analgesia
physio
intra-articular steroid injections

52

What is the treatment for a fracture of the phalynx

if extra-articular - buddy strap
if intra-articular - internal fixation with K wires, screws, plates

53

What is a Bennets fracture

base of the thumb metacarpal fracture at the CMC joint

54

what is the treatment for bennets fracture

pins

55

What is the treatment for a normal base of thumb fracture

casting for 6 weeks

56

How does a base of thumb MCP usually occur

jamming it in a door

57

What is a boxers fracture

5th metacarpal fracture

58

what complication can occur in a boxers fracture

fight bite - watch out for infection

59

What will someone with an MCP fracture present with

pain
swollen knuckles
3rd,4th,5th most common
when asked to flex fingers - will be mal-aligned or unable to fully flex

60

What is the treatment for MCP fracture

3,4,5 - conservative with a splint
surgery - if bone mal-aligned and won't stay straight with splint

61

What is carpal tunnel syndrome

Compression of the median nerve

62

What will carpal tunnel present with

numbness/loss of sensation over thumb, index and middle finger

63

What does tinel's test do in carpal tunnel syndrome

tapping over the median nerve causes tingling up the thumb, middle and index fingers

64

What is the treatment for carpal tunnel syndrome

decompression - either by removing fluid or surgically

65

What is cubital tunnel syndrome

compression of the ulnar nerve at the elbow behind the medial epicondyle
(this is the nerve that makes your elbow tingle when you hit your funny bone)

66

What does someone with cubital tunnel syndrome present with

numbness over ring and pinky fingers
can't abduct fingers

67

What is Froment's test in cubital tunnel syndrome

Patient holds a piece of paper and doctor tries to pull it away - tests pincer strength

68

what is trigger finger

inflammation of the tendons in the digits causes them to get stuck when trying to move though the pulleys

69

what is the most common pulley to be involved

A1

70

What is the presentation of trigger finger

finger will flex with a pop and be unable or stiff to extend again

71

What is the treatment for trigger finger

anti-inflammatories
intra-articular steroid injections - decrease inflammation of tendon
surgery - releases pulley that is too tight

72

What is DeQuervains tenosynovitis

inflammation of the tendon on the side of the wrist and thumb

73

what is the presentation of DeQuervains

pain at the base of the thumb

74

What is finkelsteins test for DeQuervains

grip the thumb and ulnar deviate the thumb to stretch the thumb tendon elicits pain

75

What is the treatment for DeQuervains

anti-inflammatories
steroid injections
wrist splint

76

what is skiers thumb

torn thumb ligament

77

What is the presentation of skiers thumb

pain in the first web space
can over extend thumb

78

What is the treatment for skiers thumb

splint/cast

79

What is jersey finger

torn flexor tendon at tip of finger

80

How odes jersey finger usually occur

during sport when players catch their finger on someone elses jersey (hyperextension)

81

What is the investigation for jersey finger

ask patient to flex fingers and the one with the torn tendon will stay up

82

What is the treatment for jersey finger

surgery -the best option to restore tendon length and reattach

83

what is mallot finger also known as

drop finger

84

What is mallor finger

extensor tendon tear at the tip of the finger

85

How does mallot finger usually occur

jamming it in something

86

What is the treatment for mallot finger

splint to keep it extended - must be kept extended for 6-8 weeks
surgery if avulsion