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Flashcards in framing criminal culpability Deck (21)
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What is a definition of mens rea?

the mental state (guilty mind)


What is actus reus?

the prohibited act (guilty act)


Is murder found in an Act of Parliament?

No, due to time restraints, Parliament will legislate on pressing issues requiring legislation. Murder is an offence under common law


What are the three elements that make up the definition of the actus reus of murder?

3-the victim was a human being


According to Elliott and Quinn 2012, what is the mens rea for murder?

"either an intention to kill or an intention to cause grievous bodily harm"


In R v White (John) [1921] 2 KB 124, what were the facts and was he charged with the offence of murder?

Defendant gave his mother poison, but she died of a heart attack before the poison took effect. Therefore, he was not liable for murder. He also was not charged with attempted murder


What is the test of factual causation relating to murder?

The "but for" test. The prosecution must prove that 'but for ' the accused 's conduct, the victim would not have died as he did.


What did the Law Reform(Year and a Day Rule) Act 1996 do?

Removed the requirement that death must occur within a year and day-this is relevant to medical intervention that can prolong life.


What is the test of legal causation relating to murder?

Whether the act or omission was an operative and significant cause of death.


When was the death penalty abolished and what was the act?

Murder (Abolition of the Death Penalty) Act 1965, making the penalty a mandatory life sentence.


What is the criteria for causing death by dangerous driving?

S1 RTA 1988 '...death is driving a mechanically propelled vehicle dangerously on a road or public place is guilty of an offence'
S2 (A)1-driving dangerously is when it falls below expected level of a competent and careful driver and it would be obvious to a competent and careful driver that driving like this is dangerous.


Name the case linked to death by dangerous driving?

R v Gary Neil Hart [2003] EWCA Crim 1268
The driver fell asleep at the wheel whilst driving and went off the road onto a rail track and struck a train causing ten deaths. Found guilty of dangerous driving


Is the test for dangerous driving subjective or objective?

objective. It does not take into account the experience and skills-therefore a learner driver will be judged like an experienced one.


What is the criteria of causing death by careless or inconsiderate driving?

S2B RTA driving a mechanically propelled vehicle on a road or public place without due care and attention or without reasonable consideration for other persons using the road or place.
S3ZA(2) the standard falls below what would be expected of a competent and careful driver.
S3ZA(4) they are regarded as driving without reasonable consideration if others are inconvenienced by their driving


What happened to homosexual men during WW2?

Imprisoned In concentration camps, had to wear a pink triangle.
Denied compensation as homosexuality was illegal under sect 175 of the German penal code


What was published in 1957 regarding homosexuality and Prostitution?

The Wolfenden report. It highlighted that the criminal law was there to preserve public order and decency, protect the citizens from offensive or injuries and safeguard against exploitation and corruption. However, there should be an area of private morality that is not the laws business.


What were the facts of Knuller ( publishing, printing and promotions) Ltd v DPP [ 1973] AC 435

Publication of a contact magazine for homosexual men.
Publisher was prosecuted under common law offence of conspiring to outrage public decency
It showed that although certain conduct was de criminalised didn't mean it was lawful and accepted


What change was enacted in the Criminal Justice and Public Order Act 1994?

The age of consent for homosexual activity between men in private was reduced to 18. This was due to a 1994 parliamentary free vote and this was the compromise
Still not equal to heterosexuals


Why was the case of
Sutherland v UK [1998] EHRLR 177, 24 EHRR Cd 22 important?

He claimed he was being discriminated against on the basis of his sexuality, on the right to private and family life. Art 8 in conjunction with Art 14.
The court agreed.


What did the SOA 200O do?

Following Sutherland, the age of consent was lowered to 16
However, it was still illegal unless in private.


What Act of Parliament did ADT V UK ( 2001) 31 EHRR 33 start?

It argued in private was a breach of article 8 in conjunction with art 14
It did not change the law but the government addressed it by abolishing the acts of Buffett and gross indecency in the SOA 2003.