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Flashcards in Fundamentals of Nutrition Deck (13):

B1 vitamin and disorders

- thiamine
- important precursor in glycolysis and TCA cycle (pyruvate dehydrogenase complex)
- deficiency from EtOHism
- Clinically: dry beriberi (muscle wasting, partial paralysis), wet beriberi (cardiac failure, peripheral edema)


B2 vitamin and disorders

- riboflavin (MILK)
- FAD coenzyme
- deficiency from poor dietary intake (usually accompanied by deficiency of other vitamins) or malabsorption syndromes
- red vessel in iris, magenta tongue, stomatitis


B3 vitamin and disorders

- Niacin
- coenzyme form NAD and NADPH
- deficiency from Hartnup disease (impaired AA absorption, tryptophan deficiency, niacin deficiency)
- malnutrition--> Pellagra



diarrhea, dementia, dermatitis, death (4s)


B5 vitamin and disorders

- panthothenic acid
- synthesis of coenzyme A
- deficiency from expreme starvation
- paresthesia, alopecia, adrenal insufficiency, hypoglycemia


B6 vitamin and disorders

- pyridoxine
- Clinically: sideroblastic anemia, stomatitis, convulsions, intertrigo


sideroblastic anemia

cannot incorportate iron into heme: lead poisoning and B6 deficiency


B7 vitamin and disorders

- biotin
- cofactor for carboxylation enzymes (gluconeogenesis, fatty acid synthesis)
- deficiency from consuming excessive amount of raw eggs
Clinical manifestations:
- alopecia
- rashes, seborrheic dermatitis
- bowel inflammation, muscle pain


B9 vitamin and disorders

- folic acid
- deficiency from pregnancy, methotrexate use, and EtOH ism
- in pregnancy can lead to neural tube defect, spina bifida
- clinically: macrocytic megaloblastic anemia, CAD, DVT, stroke


B12 vitamin and disorders

- cobalamin
- deficiency from: pernicious anemia, chronic pancreatitis, long term, vegetarian diet, resection of terminal ileum
- clinically: CV disease, DVT, stroke, neuropathies


C vitamin and disorders

- ascorbate
- cofactor for: collagen synthesis, antioxidant, enhances Fe absorbption in the GI tract
- dietary deficiency from lack of citrus fruit and green vegetables
- Clinically: scurvy (issues with tissue strength/healing)


vitamin A

- retinol
- main functions are vision and maintenance of epithelium
- deficiency from extreme malnutition, fat malabsorption, and liver cirrhoisis
- Clinically: night blindness, metaplasia of corneal epithelium((( polar bear liver)))


vitamin D

- forms: ergocalciferol, cholecalciferol, calcitriol, calcifediol
- functions in GI tract, kidneys, and bones
- Clinically: childhood rickets (skeletal abnormalities), adult osteomalacia, muscle and bone issues