Fundamentals Unit - History, Geography & Geology Flashcards
Who invented the waterproof, rollable wooden cask for transporting and storage of foodstuffs?
The Celts around 350BCE
Who brought the first grapevines to France and when?
The Phocaeans, Greeks from Asia Minor in 600 BCE. They settled in a colony called Massalia which is now Marseille.
What contribution did Romans make to viticulture and winemaking?
They came to defend the Phocaeans and spread vinegrowing through several parts of Gaul for around 5 centuries including SW France, Bordeaux, Bourgogne, Loire, Alsace and Champagne.
Who filled the vacuum created by the slow collapse of the Roman Empire?
The Catholic Church saved the vineyards and expanded through new monasteries.
Who was Clovis and what was his role in Gaul?
He was a king of the Franks, (German tribes) who invaded Gaul and took over. He eventually united large parts of Gaul under one king and one religion.
What myth is associated with Clovis?
He is said to have made a deal with god that he would convert to Christianity if he defeated his enemies. The bishop of Reims blessed a cask of wine which he told Clovis that as long as it did not run dry he would defeat his enemies which he did.
What new tradition did Clovis initiate in France?
That men should eat in an upright position and not lying down as the Romans did. His name was also derived as Louis and became the name of 18 kings.
What is the “Ban des Vendanges”.
Because of the fragmentation of Gaul under Charlemagne’s sons, feudal lords gained great powers, including the right to tax and prohibit. The BdV was a PRESCRIBED PICKING DATE WHICH MUST BE ADHERED TO. It simplified tax collection on grape harvest.
What is unusual about the “Ban des Vendanges”.
It is the only “ban” to survive the French Revolution as it served a good purpose - it helped to deliver a consistent quality of product in a given year.
Which part of France did the troubadors inhabit?
They inhabited territory bordering the Mediterranean - Occitania. They travelled the land singing of honor, love and chivalry. Their language was “Langue d’Oc”.
Why did troubadors clash with the ruling social order?
They did not agree with the concept of “noble birth”. They believed true nobility involved good character and good behaviour. This was contrary to the social order at that time which was supported by the Catholic Church.
What fate befell the Cathars in Occitania?
They were regarded as a heretical sect so Pope Innocent III initiated a formal crusade against them in 1209. They were slaughtered and Occitania was annexed into France
Why was the papacy moved from Rome in 1305?
The archbishop of Bordeaux was elected pope and moved it to Avignon where it remained until 1376.
Where did Pope John XXII build a summer palace?
To the north of Avignon. This became known as Chateauneuf-de-Pape and the village and wines made there also assumed this name.
What effect did the Hundred Years War have?
It decimated the population and left fewer workers to tend the vineyards.