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Flashcards in Fundus Deck (30):
1

What are the components of the fundus?

Sclera
Choroid (vascular)
Tapetum
Retinal pigment epithelium (RPE)
Neurosensory retina (rods, cones, and retinal blood vessel)

2

T/F: lacking pigmented epithelium or the tapetum from the retina can be a normal variation

True

Occurs in light blue eyed dogs (husky)

3

T/F: the optic nerve is myelinated in dogs and cats

False

Myelinated in dogs

Absent in cats —> optic disc appears dark, round and small

4

What are hallmarks of retinal disease?

Retinal hemorrhage
Retinal detachment
Vascular changes
Altered tapetal reflectivity
Altered pigmentation
Altered optic nerve Head appearance

5

What are possible causes of retinal hemorrhage?

Anemia
Systemic hypertension
Hyperviscosity
Diabetes mellitus
Chorioretintitis
Coagulopathy
Trauma
Retinal detachment

6

Where can retinal hemorrhage be localized?

Pre- retinal (keel boat)
Within nerve fiber (flame-shaped)
Within retina (dot-blot)
Sub-retinal (diffuse, irregular)

7

What initial diagnostic work up do you do if you have a patient with retinal hemorrhage?

CBC/Chem
PT/PTT
Blood pressure

8

What are causes of retinal detachment?

Retinal degeneration
Vitreous disease
Congenital malformation
Lens luxation
Neoplasia
Intraocular inflammation — chorioretintitis
Trauma
Vascular disease — hypertension

9

What is retinal detachment ?

Separation of neurosensory retinal from RPE

Remains attached at ONH and oral ciliaris

10

Bulbous detachment of the retinal is an early sign of __________________ disease in cats

Feline hypertensive retinopathy

11

What is the treatment for bulbous retinal detachment associated with feline hypertensive retinopathy?

Antihypertensive therapy —amlodipine

12

What is retinal dialysis/

Compete retinal detachment AND tear

No longer attached at ora ciliaris

13

Retinal dialysis is a common occurrence with primary vitreous degeneration. What breeds are predisposed ?

Shih Tzu
Havanese
Chinese crested

14

How does the retina appear with retinal dialysis?

Tapetum is hyper-reflective because no overlying retina is there to absorbed light and the retinal is folded over the optic nerve

15

What is the treatment for retinal dialysis?

Partial detachments - retinopexy

Complete detachments
-re-attachment surgery
-poor visual success rate

16

Increased tortuously of the vascular retina is associated with ??

Hypertension
Hyperviscosity (polycythemia)

17

In what cases can you get increased reflectivity of the tapetum?

Retinal thinning
-degeneration/scarring
-retinal detachment/tear

18

In what cases can you have decreased reflectivity of the tapetum?

Increased retinal thickening
-folding
-edema
-inflitrates
-effusion

19

What are disorders of retinal degeneration?

Progressive retinal atrophy
Sudden acquired retinal degeneration syndrome
Feline central retinal degeneration
Drug-associated rental degeneration

20

What is progressive retinal atrophy?

Bilateral and symmetrical degeneration

GRADUAL Photoreceptor degeneration — causing night blindness initially then progressing to gradual loss of vision

21

What is the treatment for progressive retinal atrophy?

None

22

Clinical signs of progressive retinal atrophy?

Slow/incomplete PLR

Narrowing and loss of retinal blood vessels = attenuation

Tapetal hyper-reflectivity

Optic nerve atrophy

Non-tapetal pigmentary changes

Secondary cataract formation

23

What is sudden aquired rental degeneration syndrome (SARDS)?

Bilateral and symmetrical

ACUTE photoreceptor death
-dilated pupils but fundus appears normal

24

SARDS is associated with what signalment?

Middle aged/older dogs

Obesity/weight gain

PU/PD/PP
CBC and biochem are suggestive of hyperadrenocortisim but most cases do not have cushings

25

What is feline central rental degeneration?

Initial degeneration confined to ellipical area dorsolateral to ONH

26

Feline central retinal degeneration may be associated with what nutrional deficiency?

Taurine

27

What antibiotic can cause retinal degeneration in cats

Enrofloxacin

—- functional defects in ABCG2 allows drug to cross blood-retinal barrier

28

What is chorioretintitis?

Inflammation of the chronic (uvea) and retinal

Gray-white ares of edema or cellular infiltrate in the retina
Can aslo have retinal detachment, rentinal hemorrhage, vitreous haze, impaired vision, anterior uveitis

29

What work up will you do for chorioretintitis ?

PE

CBC/biochem/UA/thoracic rads

Serology (fungal and tick titers)

30

Treatment for chorioretintitis?

Address specific causes
Anti-microbial
Anti-inflammatory — if infectious diseases excluded