Flashcards in Gases, Liquids, and Solids Deck (38):

1

## Definition of a Gas

###
Uniformly fills any container

Mixes completely with any other gas

Exerts pressure on its surroundings

Indefinite shape

Indefinite volume

2

## Kinetic Molecular Theory

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All gases move in random, straight-line motion seperated by empty space

Collisions between gas particles may result in a transfer of energy, but overall energy is constant

Collisions of particles with container walls cause pressure exerted by gas

Volume of individual particles is approximately zero

Particles exert no force on each other

3

## Properties of an Ideal Gas

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No volume

No mass

No molecular attraction

High temperature

Low pressure

4

## Properties of a Real Gas

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Have volume

Have mass

Have molecular attraction

5

## How to make a real gas into an ideal gas

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Increase temperature, because low temperature leads to slower particles, which means more attraction which makes it less like an ideal gas. Gas can be heated

Lower pressure, can be corrected by placing the gas in a bigger container, more volume, leads to lower pressure

6

## Ideal/Universal Gas Law

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PV=nRT

P=Pressure

V=Volume

n=moles

R=Proportionate Temperature (0.08206)

T=Temperature(K)

7

## Correcting Real Gas

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[(Pobs +a((n/V)^2))]*[(V-nb)]=nRT

a=gas constant

b=gas constant

8

## P=F/A

### Pressure equals (Force divided by Area)

9

## Relationship between temperature and number of effective collisions

### The higher the temperature the more number of effective collisions due to higher probability.

10

## Units of Pressure

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kPA=kilo pascals

mmHg=Milimeters of Mercury

atm=atmospheric pressure

torr=Same as mmHg, differnt name, based on absolute scale

1 atm =101.3 kPa

1 torr=1mmHg

11

## Law of Partial Pressures

### Pt=P1+P2...Pn

12

## How to calculate values of partial pressure?

### Use equations/fractions

13

## Avogrado's Hypothesis

### Equal volume of gasses, at the same temperature and pressure have an equal amount of particles

14

## STP

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ST:(Standard Temperature)

SP:(Standard Pressure) 1 atm/101.3 kPa

15

## 1 mole of any gas has...

###
22.4L

6.02*(10^23) particles

16

## Same volume means...

### Same amount of particles

17

## Combined Gas Law

### (P1*V1)/(T1)=(P2*V2)/(T2)

18

## Boyle's Law

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P*V=T

Temperature is constant

P1*V1=P2V2

Inverse relationship between pressure and volume

Increase Pressure --> Decrease Volume

Decrease Pressure --> Increase volume

More accurate at low pressures, because acts more like an ideal gas

19

## k

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k is constant

Value is calculated when P*V

P*V=k

20

## Charles' Law

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Linear Relationship

Directly proportional

Extrapolates to 0, at 0 K

(V1/T1)=(V2/T2)

V/T=k

Increase volume --> Increase Temperature

Decrease Volume --> Decrease Temperature

21

## Definition of Diffusion

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Describes the mixing of gases

The rate of diffusion is the rate of the gas mixing

22

## Definition of Effusion

### Describes the passage of gas into an evacuated chamber

23

## Graham's Law of Diffusion/Effusion

### Rate of effusion of gas is inversely proportional tot he square root of the mass of the particles

24

## Formula for Effusion

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[(Sqrt(M2))/((Sqrt(M1))]

M1 and M2 are the rates of effusion of each gas

Substitute Molar Mass(GFM) for M1 and M2

25

## Formula for Diffusion

###
[(Sqrt(M2))/((Sqrt(M1))]

M1 and M2 are the distances traveled by each gas

Substitute Molar Mass(GFM) for M1 and M2

26

## Properties of Liquids

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Stronger inter-molecular force compared to gases

Indefinite shape

Definite volume

All liquids evaporate at the surface

If temperature increases, the Kinetic Energy also increases, and the rate of evaporation also increases

27

## Boiling Point of Liquids

### When atmospheric pressure is equal to vapor pressure

28

## Normal Boiling Point of Liquids

### Boiling point of a liquid at standard pressure(1 atm/101.3 kPa)

29

## How to find boiling points?

### Look on Table H

30

## Liquid with the weakest inter-molecular attraction of liquids is...

### The one that takes the least amount of heat to boil

31

## GFM

### The Molar mass, calculated with Table S, using the masses of each element times the number of each element.

32

## Surface Tension

### The resistance of a liquid to increase its surface area

33

## Capillary Action

### The spontaneous rising of a liquid in a narrow tube

34

## Definition of Viscosity

### The resistance of a liquid to flow

35

## Properties of Solids

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Definite Shape

Definite Volume

Have the strongest inter-molecular force, out of all three phases of matter

Each molecule is in a fixed position, but they do vibrate

Have a crystalline structure with geometric patterns, when viewed under a microscope

36

## Examples of crystalline solids

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Atomic Solid

Ionic Solid

Molecular Solid

37

## Amorphous Solids

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Solids that lack ordered structure

Plastics and rubber

38