Gases, Liquids, and Solids Flashcards Preview

Chemistry 10 Honors > Gases, Liquids, and Solids > Flashcards

Flashcards in Gases, Liquids, and Solids Deck (38):
1

Definition of a Gas

Uniformly fills any container
Mixes completely with any other gas
Exerts pressure on its surroundings
Indefinite shape
Indefinite volume

2

Kinetic Molecular Theory

All gases move in random, straight-line motion seperated by empty space
Collisions between gas particles may result in a transfer of energy, but overall energy is constant
Collisions of particles with container walls cause pressure exerted by gas
Volume of individual particles is approximately zero
Particles exert no force on each other

3

Properties of an Ideal Gas

No volume
No mass
No molecular attraction
High temperature
Low pressure

4

Properties of a Real Gas

Have volume
Have mass
Have molecular attraction

5

How to make a real gas into an ideal gas

Increase temperature, because low temperature leads to slower particles, which means more attraction which makes it less like an ideal gas. Gas can be heated
Lower pressure, can be corrected by placing the gas in a bigger container, more volume, leads to lower pressure

6

Ideal/Universal Gas Law

PV=nRT
P=Pressure
V=Volume
n=moles
R=Proportionate Temperature (0.08206)
T=Temperature(K)

7

Correcting Real Gas

[(Pobs +a((n/V)^2))]*[(V-nb)]=nRT
a=gas constant
b=gas constant

8

P=F/A

Pressure equals (Force divided by Area)

9

Relationship between temperature and number of effective collisions

The higher the temperature the more number of effective collisions due to higher probability.

10

Units of Pressure

kPA=kilo pascals
mmHg=Milimeters of Mercury
atm=atmospheric pressure
torr=Same as mmHg, differnt name, based on absolute scale
1 atm =101.3 kPa
1 torr=1mmHg

11

Law of Partial Pressures

Pt=P1+P2...Pn

12

How to calculate values of partial pressure?

Use equations/fractions

13

Avogrado's Hypothesis

Equal volume of gasses, at the same temperature and pressure have an equal amount of particles

14

STP

ST:(Standard Temperature)
SP:(Standard Pressure) 1 atm/101.3 kPa

15

1 mole of any gas has...

22.4L
6.02*(10^23) particles

16

Same volume means...

Same amount of particles

17

Combined Gas Law

(P1*V1)/(T1)=(P2*V2)/(T2)

18

Boyle's Law

P*V=T
Temperature is constant
P1*V1=P2V2
Inverse relationship between pressure and volume
Increase Pressure --> Decrease Volume
Decrease Pressure --> Increase volume
More accurate at low pressures, because acts more like an ideal gas

19

k

k is constant
Value is calculated when P*V
P*V=k

20

Charles' Law

Linear Relationship
Directly proportional
Extrapolates to 0, at 0 K
(V1/T1)=(V2/T2)
V/T=k
Increase volume --> Increase Temperature
Decrease Volume --> Decrease Temperature

21

Definition of Diffusion

Describes the mixing of gases
The rate of diffusion is the rate of the gas mixing

22

Definition of Effusion

Describes the passage of gas into an evacuated chamber

23

Graham's Law of Diffusion/Effusion

Rate of effusion of gas is inversely proportional tot he square root of the mass of the particles

24

Formula for Effusion

[(Sqrt(M2))/((Sqrt(M1))]
M1 and M2 are the rates of effusion of each gas
Substitute Molar Mass(GFM) for M1 and M2

25

Formula for Diffusion

[(Sqrt(M2))/((Sqrt(M1))]
M1 and M2 are the distances traveled by each gas
Substitute Molar Mass(GFM) for M1 and M2

26

Properties of Liquids

Stronger inter-molecular force compared to gases
Indefinite shape
Definite volume
All liquids evaporate at the surface
If temperature increases, the Kinetic Energy also increases, and the rate of evaporation also increases

27

Boiling Point of Liquids

When atmospheric pressure is equal to vapor pressure

28

Normal Boiling Point of Liquids

Boiling point of a liquid at standard pressure(1 atm/101.3 kPa)

29

How to find boiling points?

Look on Table H

30

Liquid with the weakest inter-molecular attraction of liquids is...

The one that takes the least amount of heat to boil

31

GFM

The Molar mass, calculated with Table S, using the masses of each element times the number of each element.

32

Surface Tension

The resistance of a liquid to increase its surface area

33

Capillary Action

The spontaneous rising of a liquid in a narrow tube

34

Definition of Viscosity

The resistance of a liquid to flow

35

Properties of Solids

Definite Shape
Definite Volume
Have the strongest inter-molecular force, out of all three phases of matter
Each molecule is in a fixed position, but they do vibrate
Have a crystalline structure with geometric patterns, when viewed under a microscope

36

Examples of crystalline solids

Atomic Solid
Ionic Solid
Molecular Solid

37

Amorphous Solids

Solids that lack ordered structure
Plastics and rubber

38

Super Cooled Liquids

Cooled to a rigid state, without crystallizing
Glass