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Flashcards in gastrointestinal indications Deck (46)
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1

Common bitter digestive stimulants

Achillea millefolium
arctium lappa root
berberis aquafolium root
gentiana lutea root
harpagophytum procumbens tuber
leptandra virginica root
rumex crispus root
taraxacum officinale root and leaf

2

most common adverse effect of GI herbs

nausea and vomitting

3

common aromatic digestive stimulants

angelica archangelica root
capsicum frutescens fruit, inteneral
cinnamomum zeylanicum bark
juniperus communis fruit
zingiber officinale rhizome

4

common demulcents

aloe vera gel
althaea officinalis leaf or root
plantago lancetolata and major
ulmus rubra

5

common bowel movement stimulants: constituents, contraindications, adverse effects, toxicity, interactions

aloe vera latex / Rhamnus frangula / cassia spp, senna alexandrina leaf/fruit
constituent: anthraquinone glycosides
contraindications: >10 days of consecutive use, <12 years old, bulimia, spastic colon, pregnancy
adverse effects: colic, reddish discoloration of feces, Pseudomelanosis coli
toxicity: >10 days consecutive use worsens atonic colon, leading to laxative dependence, electrolyte imbalance, hypokalemia, miscarriage

6

interferes with absorption of practically any drug and should not be combined with cardiac glycosides, diuretic, antiarrhythmia agents, corticosteroids -- reasoning?

aloe vera latex
rhamnus frangula
cassia spp.

these drugs and herbs can cause hypokalemia.

7

aloe vera gel
Con., Act., Indic., Contraind., Adv., Tox., Interactions.

con: polysac
act: immunomodulating, vulnerary, demulcent
ind: topical: burns, frostbite, wounds, skin ulcer; internal: inflammatory processes of luminal tracts
Contraind: third degree burns, deep wounds, infected wounds
Adv: none
tox: safe
interactions: may reduce absorption of many agents, additive hypoglycemic effect with glyburide

8

Ulmus rubra bark
Con., Act., Indic., Contraind., Adv., Tox., Interactions.

con: polysac
act: demulcent in GI tract, reflux demulcent in lungs
ind: inflammatory processes of luminal tracts
contraind: wet cough, generally should not be used due to environmental impacts
adv: non
tox: none
interactions: polysacs may reduce absorption in GI tract

9

plantago lancetolata / major leaf
Con., Act., Indic., Contraind., Adv., Tox., Interactions.

con: polysac, iridoid glycosides, oleanolic acid
act: demulcent in GI and reflux demulc in lung /urinary tract, vulnerary
ind: internal: inflammatory processes of luminal tract, dry cough; topical: dermatitis, wounds, skin ulcers
contra: wet cough
adv: none
tox: none
interactions: common with all polysac

10

althaea officinalis
Con., Act., Indic., Contraind., Adv., Tox., Interactions.

con: polysac
act: demulcent in GI, reflux demulc in lungs and urinary tract
ind: inflammatory processes of luminal tracts
contra: wet cough
adverse effects: none
tox: none

11

common indication and contraindication of demulcents

ind: inflammatory process of luminal tract
contra: wet cough

12

common adverse effects, toxicity, and interactions of all demulcents

adv: none
tox: none
interactions: common with all polysac

13

common indications and contraindications for bitter digestive stimulants and aromatic digestive stimulants

indications: hypochlorhydria, nonulcer dyspepsia, maldigestion, anorexia, biliary insufficiency not due to obstruction, biliary dyskinesia, gas, atonic constripation,

Contra: active peptic ulcer, GERD, gastritis , hyperchlorhydia, biliary obstruction, acute diarrhea, acute cholelithiasis

14

achillea millefolium
Con., Act., Indic., Contraind., Adv., Tox., Interactions.

YARROW
Achilles battles with yarrow on his back.

con: sesquiterpene lactones, trace thujone, tannins, alkylamides
act: bitter digestive stimulant, styptic, inflammation modulating, vulnerary, diaphoretic

Ind: topical: wound / skin ulcer; styptic: menorrhagia, metrorrhagia, mild bleeding; common indication for bitter digestive stimulants (hypochlorhydria, nonulcer dyspepsia, maldigestion, anorexia, biliary insufficiency not due to obstruction, biliary dyskinesia, gas, atonic constripation)

contra: common contra for bitter digestive stimulants
adv: common adverse effect for bitter digestive stimulants (nausea)
interactions: increase gut motility - may decrease absorption, not indicated with concomitant PPI use

15

common adverse effect of bitter digestive stimulants

nausea

16

common interaction of bitter digestive stimulants

may change absorption of many agents, not indicated with concomitant PPI use

17

arctium lappa
Con., Act., Indic., Contraind., Adv., Tox., Interactions.

BURDOCK balances the liver

con: sesquiterpene lactones, inulin, tannins
act: bitter digestive stimulant, hepatoprotective
ind: hepatitis and common ind for bitter digestive stimulants
contra: common contraindication for bitter digestive stimulants

adv: nausea
tox: none
interactions: increase gut motility - may decrease absorption, not indicated with concomitant PPI use, additive hypoglycemic effect with insulin

18

Berberis aquifolium root
Con., Act., Indic., Contraind., Adv., Tox., Interactions.

OREGON GRAPEFRUIT
con: berberine, berbamine, flavonoids
act: bitter digestive stimulant, inflammation modulation, antimicrobial, immunomodulation, alterative, hepatoprotective, antineoplastic

ind: chronic skin diseases (psorisis, acne), candidiasis, mastitis, gastroentertits, h pylori, hepatitis, lower UTI, vaginitis, cancer, common ind of bitter digestive stimulants

contra: common contraindication for bitter stimulants
adv: common adverse effect of bitter digestive stimulants (nausea)
tox: increase gut motility - may decrease absorption, high doses may cause intestinal/vaginal dysbiosis, displaces bilirubin from albumin.

19

gentiana lutea root
Con., Act., Indic., Contraind., Adv., Tox., Interactions.

GENTIAN
con: iridoid glycosides--gentiopicroside
act: bitter digestive stimulant, hepatotonic
ind: GI atony, common indication of bitter digestive stimulants

contra: common contraindications for bitter digestive stimulants
adv: nausea
tox: none
interactions: increase gut motility - may decrease absorption

20

harpagophytum procumbens tuber
Con., Act., Indic., Contraind., Adv., Tox., Interactions.

DEVILS CLAW
con: iridoid glycosides
act: inflammation modulation, anti-rheumatic, bitter digestive stimulant
ind: gout, OA, RA, common ind for bitter digestive stimulants
contra: common contra for bitter digestive stimulants
adv: nausea
tox: none
interactions: increase gut motility - may decrease absorption

21

common interaction considerations with bitter digestive stimulants

increase gut motility - may decrease absorption

22

common indications for bitter digestive stimulants and aromatic digestive stimulants

hypochlorhydria
nonulcer dyspepsia
maldigestion
anorexia
biliary insufficiency not due to obstruction
biliary dyskinesia
atonic constripation

23

common contraindications for bitter digestive stimulants and aromatic digestive stimulants

ACTIVE GI DZ

active peptic ulcer
GERD
gastritis
hyperchlorhydia
biliary obstruction
acute diarrhea
acute cholelithiasis

24

Rumex crispus
Con., Act., Indic., Contraind., Adv., Tox., Interactions.

YELLOW DOCK
con: antraquinone glycosides--emodin
act: alterative, hepatoprotective, bitter digestive stimulant
ind, chronic skin conditions, anemia, liver disease, common indications for bitter digestive stimulants
contra: common contra for bitter digestive stimulants
adv: nausea
tox: none
interactions: increase gut motility, avoid with hypokalemic di

25

herbs that contain anthraquinone glycosides

aloe vera latex
rhamnus frangula
rumex crispus
cassia spp.

26

anthraquinone glycosides act as

laxatives

27

antraquinone glycosides should not be used with

hypokalemic diuretics
corticosteroids
glycyyrhiza
cardiac glycosides
antiarrhythmia agents

28

taraxacum officinalis leaf
Con., Act., Indic., Contraind., Adv., Tox., Interactions.

con: sesquiterpine lactones, inulin, phenolic acids
act: aquaretic, anti-HPV, bitter digestive stimulant
ind: topically: sap on plantar warts; internal: lower UTI, urolithiasis, edema (unlikely to help), common ind. for bitter digestive stimulants
Contra: common contra for bitter digestive stimuluants
adv: nausea
tox: none
interactions: increase gut motility

29

taraxacum officinalis root
Con., Act., Indic., Contraind., Adv., Tox., Interactions.

con: sesquiterpine lactones, inulin, phenolic acids
act: hepatoprotective, bitter digestive stimulant
ind: hepatitis, common ind. for bitter digestive stimulants
contra: common contra. for bitter digestive stimulants
adv: nausea
toxicity: none
interactions: increase gut motility

30

Leptandra virginica root
Con., Act., Indic., Contraind., Adv., Tox., Interactions.

con: monoterpenoids, tannins
actions: hepatotonic, bitter digestive stimulant
ind: hepatitis, common ind. for bitter digestive stimulants
contra: common contra. for bitter digestive stimulants
adv: none
tox: none
interactions: increase gut motility.