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Flashcards in GCSE Biology Deck (15)
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1

What is diffusion?

The movement of particles from an area of high to low concentration.

2

What is osmosis?

The movement of water from a dilute to a more concentrated solution through a selectively permeable membrane

3

What can cause osmosis?

Differences in concentration in/out of the cell

4

What is active transport?

Allows cells to move from an area of low to high concentration against the concentration gradient

5

What does active transport enable?

Sugar used for cell respiration to be absorbed from the gut into the blood

6

What are 4 adaptions for exchanging materials?

1) large surface area
2) thin membrane
3) efficient blood supply
4) being ventilated (animals)

7

What is a pathogen?

A microorganism that spreads disease

8

How can pathogens be spread?

Air
Water
Direct contact

9

What is phagocytosis?

Cells engulfing pathogens

10

What is an antigen?

A molecule on the surface of a pathogen recognised by the immune system

11

What is an antibody?

A protein produced by white blood cells that recognises and binds to antigens

12

What is a vaccination?

When a small amount of a pathogen is injected into a patient which gives them IMMUNITY

13

What could be used in a pathogen?

Toxins
Parts of a pathogen
Weakened form
Similar pathogens

14

What are the advantages of vaccinations?

Less chance of catching disease
Herd immunity
Saves money

15

What is a disadvantage of vaccinations?

Small chance of side effects