Flashcards in Gender Terminology Deck (12):
Words that are directed at an individual group.
Terms that bring attention to the persons gender 'Lady Doctor, Actress, Male Nurse'
Gender specific terms being used to refer to an unspecified gender.
When a female and male version of a term do not share the same status 'Master and Mistress, Knight and Dame'
Focus on women's lower status reflected by language use.
Focus on men's higher status reflected by language use.
No focus on status, instead focuses on the differences and misunderstandings between men and women.
Focuses on how other factors and variables effect language alongside gender.
Deborah Tannen - Theory
Deborah Tannen believed that men and women had different approaches to language use:
Robin Lakoff - Theory
Lakoff proposed a Deficit theory,suggesting the language women can use gives them a lack of power. She suggested women use various methods which cause this lack of power:
Super Polite Forms
Speak in Italics
Hyper correct grammar and pronunciation
Question Intonation in declarative statements
Speak less frequently
Use modal construction
Avoid coarse language
Lack a sense of humour
You do not need to know all of these, obviously.
O'Barr and Atkins (1980)
Looked at courtroom cases and witnesses' speech, suggested from their research that the 'powerless language' women use is only applicable to certain situations focusing on authority not gender.