Gender Terminology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Gender Terminology Deck (12):

Address terms

Words that are directed at an individual group.


Marked Expressions

Terms that bring attention to the persons gender 'Lady Doctor, Actress, Male Nurse'


Generic term

Gender specific terms being used to refer to an unspecified gender.


Lexical Asymmetry

When a female and male version of a term do not share the same status 'Master and Mistress, Knight and Dame'


Deficit theory

Focus on women's lower status reflected by language use.


Dominance theory

Focus on men's higher status reflected by language use.


Difference theory

No focus on status, instead focuses on the differences and misunderstandings between men and women.


Dynamic theory

Focuses on how other factors and variables effect language alongside gender.


Deborah Tannen - Theory

Deborah Tannen believed that men and women had different approaches to language use:
Men: Women:
Status Support
Independence Intimacy
Advice Understanding
Information Feeling
Orders Proposals
Conflict Comprise


Robin Lakoff - Theory

Lakoff proposed a Deficit theory,suggesting the language women can use gives them a lack of power. She suggested women use various methods which cause this lack of power:
Super Polite Forms
Tag Questions
Speak in Italics
Empty Adjectives
Hyper correct grammar and pronunciation
Question Intonation in declarative statements
Speak less frequently
Overuse qualifiers
Apologies more
Use modal construction
Avoid coarse language
Indirect commands
Lack a sense of humour

You do not need to know all of these, obviously.


O'Barr and Atkins (1980)

Looked at courtroom cases and witnesses' speech, suggested from their research that the 'powerless language' women use is only applicable to certain situations focusing on authority not gender.


Zimmerman and West (1975)

Recorded conversations involving white middle class people under the age of 35, 11 conversations between men and women, men interrupted 46 times! Women only interrupted twice. However one loud person made most of these interruptions.