Bordeaux is second in volume of production only to what other region?
In 2004 the total vineyard area of Bordeaux encompassed how many acres?
- France's largest wine appellation
Evidence of wine production near the Garonne dates back to what century?
4th century AD
Who provided the framework for Medoc's eventual dominance by creating a complex series of drainage channels throughout the area, making it suitable for viticulture in the mid-1600's?
What country ruled Bordeaux from 1152 to 1453?
In what century did a merchant class emerge with resources to store and sell wine on a major scale?
What are courtiers?
brokers of wine
- Courtiers became a powerful force in the Medoc by supplying Chateaux with financial backing while gaining total control over the actual trade of wine
When did negociants in Bordeaux start to fade in influence?
- after World War ll, with rising appeal of estate bottling
- courtiers maintain their authority over the trade
Who are responsible for en primeur sales?
What are en primeur sales?
the yearly offering of Bordeaux wines as futures
What is the climate of Bordeaux?
- both Atlantic and the Gironde estuary act as moderating influences, which also protects the vines from winter freezes and spring frost
What protects the Medoc vineyards from harsh west and northwesterly winds?
coastal pine forests
What is the climate more towards St-Emilion and Pomerol?
What is the Bordeaux mixture?
a mix of lime, copper sulfate and water
What is the purpose of the Bordeaux mixture?
It helps avoid fungal problems.
What is clairet?
a darker, more aromatic style of rose that evokes the original claret wines shipped to England in the Middle Ages
Besides Semillon, Sauvignon Blanc, and Muscadelle, what are 3 other varietals permitted in the basic Bordeaux AOP white blend?, to a maximum proportion of what percent?
- up to 30%
Which of the follwoing was the best vintage for Bordeaux: 1929, 1930 or 1931?
The Médoc AOP stretches how many miles in length from north to south?
In what year of the 20th century did terrible frost destroy nearly 3/4 of the Malbec vines in Bordeaux, leading to its decline in the region?
What are jalles?
Why is Merlot grown more in Bas Médoc than Haut-Médoc?
Merlot performs better in the waterlogged, clay-heavy soils of the Bas-Médoc
The best vineyards of the Haut-Médoc are characterized by what type of soils?
well-drained gravelly soils
- perfectly suited for Cabernet Sauvignon
T/F: Médoc AOP wines must be red.
Appx how many acres in the Médoc AOP are planted to white grapes?
only 123 acres
- the Médoc region is overwhelmingly devoted to red wine production
Cru Artisan, a designation that has been in use for nearly a century and a half, was formally recognized in what year?
From the 2005 vintage forward, how many small producers throughout the Médoc's appellations have the right to use the Cru Artisan designaion?
What does the Cru Artisan designation indicate?
exceptional stewards of the land and craft of winemaking without the financing or apparatus of large-scale operations
What is the northernmost commune appellation in the Haut-Médoc?
How would you describe the style of wines from St-Estéphe?
sturdy bodied reds - higher % Merlot, due to high proportion clay amongst gravel
In which appellation is the gravel topsoil at its deepest point?
- Lafite Rothschild
- Pichon Longueville Baron
- Pichon Longueville Comtesse de Lalande
- Castle Armailhac (known as Mouton-Baronne-Philippe, 1933-1988)
- Castle Croizet Bages
What are croupes?
- unearthed by the Dutch during their drainage work in the 1600s; the better châteaux are usually located upon these deep gravel banks
What is the most famous estate in Moulis?
What are the 5 villages of Margaux?
(C. L. A. M. S.)
What is the general style of wine from Margaux?
feminine, floral bouquet, exotic character and finesse
What is the first identifiable vineyard estate in the Graves region?
- a papal gift awarded to Bordeaux in 1305
What is boulbenes?
soil mixture of sand, gravel and light clay
Who was responsible for carrying out the categorization of the classifications?
the region's courtiers
- categorized by pre-existing prices first through fifth growths
In what year was the communal sub-appellation Pessac-Léognan created?
What are three smaller sweet wine appellations in Graves?
Sauternes is produced from what three grapes?
Sémillon, Sauvignon Blanc, Muscadelle
Sauternes lies at the confluence of what two rivers?
Ciron and Garonne Rivers
Why does a producer have to pick botyrtis grapes in tries (multiple trips through the vineyards)?
Because, botrytis does not attack grapes evenly; some grapes might be more afflicted than others at different points in hang time
What is the one Premier Cru Supérieur in Sauternes?
What is the name of dry wine produced Château d'Yquem?
- labeled as Bordeaux or Bordeaux Supérieur
Sauternes covers what 5 villages?
What is the min must weight of Sauternes AOP and Barsac AOP?
What is the min rs required in the finished wines of Sauternes AOP and Barsac AOP?
45 g/l rs
Who releases "Creme de Tête", a Sauternes aged for decades in concrete vats?
Château Ausone's name is an homage to what?
Ausonius, a 4th century Roman poet who may (or may not) have planted his vines at the site of the current estate
What is unique about Château Figeac in St-Émilion?
Cabernet Sauvignon is a major component of the blend
What are the two broadly categorized types of soils in St-Émilion?
côtes - steep hillside slopes of limestone
graves - gravelly limestone plateau resembling soils of the Médoc
In what year was St-Émilion's three-tier classification published?; in what years were there revisions to the classification?
1955; 1969, 1985, 1996, and 2012
What are the requirements for a wine labeled St-Émilion Grand Cru AOP?
- + 0.5% alcohol
- longer élevage than wines simply labeled St-Émilion AOP
What is Pomerol's size in acres?
- just five square miles, tiny AOP (St-Émilion has 13,000 acres)
What is crasse de fer?
Pomerol subsoil of iron pan and rich clay
Describe the wines of Pétrus.
- hedonistic, plump, opulent
- gen 70-80 Merlot, 20-25 Cab Franc
The Cru Bourgeois originally divided 444 properties into what three categories?
Cru Bourgeois Exceptionnel
Cru Bourgeois Supérieur
Name five of the best properties in Pomerol.
Château Le Pin
Name two châteaux among the vanguard of the "microchâteau", or garagistes movement.
Le Pin - Pomerol
Valandraud - St-Émilion
La Mondotte - St-Émilion
Le Pin is a château located in what AOP?
Valandraud is a château located in what AOP?
How many bottles does Le Pin make annually?
(vs. Château Latour's 150-180,000 bottles of grand vin)
What are the four satellite appellations for St-Émilion ?
Néac, Fronsac AOP, and Canon-Fronsac AOP are located within what larger appellation?
For which vintage did Château Mouton Rothschild select two different labels?
(artist - Jean-Paul Riopelle)
Samuel Pepys famously extolled the virtues of "Ho-Bryan" in what year?
White wine accounts for what percentage of Graves production?
Sweet whites may be produced throughout Graves as what designation?
Graves Supérieur AOP
Name two vintages that Château d'Yquem did not produce a Sauternes.
What is Cabernet Franc known as in Pomerol?
What is the oldest family owning a classified growth in the Médoc?