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Flashcards in General Deck (72):
1

Bordeaux is second in volume of production only to what other region?

Languedoc

2

In 2004 the total vineyard area of Bordeaux encompassed how many acres?

306,000 acres

  • France's largest wine appellation

3

Evidence of wine production near the Garonne dates back to what century?

4th century AD

4

Who provided the framework for Medoc's eventual dominance by creating a complex series of drainage channels throughout the area, making it suitable for viticulture in the mid-1600's?

the Dutch

5

What country ruled Bordeaux from 1152 to 1453?

England

6

In what century did a merchant class emerge with resources to store and sell wine on a major scale?

18th century

7

What are courtiers?

brokers of wine

  • Courtiers became a powerful force in the Medoc by supplying Chateaux with financial backing while gaining total control over the actual trade of wine

8

When did negociants in Bordeaux start to fade in influence?

  • After World War ll, with rising appeal of estate bottling
  • Courtiers maintain their authority over the trade

9

Who are responsible for en primeur sales?

courtiers

10

What are en primeur sales?

Yearly offering of Bordeaux wines as futures

11

What is the climate of Bordeaux?

maritime

 

  • Both Atlantic and the Gironde estuary act as moderating influences, which also protects the vines from winter freezes and spring frost

12

What protects the Medoc vineyards from harsh west and northwesterly winds?

coastal pine forests

13

What is the climate more towards St-Emilion and Pomerol?

continental

14

What is the Bordeaux mixture?

a mix of lime, copper sulfate and water

15

What is the purpose of the Bordeaux mixture?

It helps avoid fungal problems.

16

What is clairet?

Darker, more aromatic style of rosé that evokes the original claret wines shipped to England in the Middle Ages

17

Besides Semillon, Sauvignon Blanc, and Muscadelle, what are 3 other varietals permitted in the basic Bordeaux AOP white blend?: to a maximum proportion of what percent?

  • Ugni Blanc
  • Merlot Blanc
  • Colombard

Up to 30%

19

Which of the follwoing was the best vintage for Bordeaux: 1929, 1930 or 1931?

1929

20

The Médoc AOP stretches how many miles in length from north to south?

 

50 miles 

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21

In what year of the 20th century did terrible frost destroy nearly 3/4 of the Malbec vines in Bordeaux, leading to its decline in the region?

1956

23

What are jalles?

drainage channels

24

Why is Merlot grown more in Bas Médoc than Haut-Médoc?

 

Merlot performs better in the waterlogged, clay-heavy soils of the Bas-Médoc

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25

The best vineyards of the Haut-Médoc are characterized by what type of soils?

 

well-drained gravelly soils 

  • Perfectly suited for Cabernet Sauvignon

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26

T/F: Médoc AOP wines must be red.

 

True

27

Appx how many acres in the Médoc AOP are planted to white grapes?
 

only 123 acres

  • Médoc is overwhelmingly devoted to red wine production

29

Cru Artisan, a designation that has been in use for nearly a century and a half, was formally recognized in what year?

 

2002

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30

From the 2005 vintage forward, how many small producers throughout the Médoc's appellations have the right to use the Cru Artisan designaion?

 

44

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31

What does the Cru Artisan designation indicate?

 

exceptional stewards of the land and craft of winemaking without the financing or apparatus of large-scale operations

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33

What is the northernmost commune appellation in the Haut-Médoc?

 

St-Estéphe AOP

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34

How would you describe the style of wines from St-Estéphe?

sturdy bodied reds - higher % Merlot, due to high proportion clay amongst gravel

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35

In which appellation is the gravel topsoil at its deepest point?

 

Pauillac AOP

1st

  • Lafite Rothschild
  • Latour
  • Mouton-Rothschild

2nd

  • Pichon Longueville Baron
  • Pichon Longueville Comtesse de Lalande

3rd

  • none

4th

  • Duhart-Milon-Rothschild 

5th

  • Batailley
  • Castle Armailhac (known as Mouton-Baronne-Philippe, 1933-1988)
  • Castle Croizet Bages
  • Clerc-Milon
  • Grand-Puy-Ducasse
  • Grand-Puy-Lacoste
  • Haut-Bages-Liberal
  • Haut-Batailley
  • Lynch-Bages
  • Pédesclaux
  • Pontet-Canet

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36

What are croupes?

 

gravel mounds

  • Unearthed by the Dutch during their drainage work in the 1600s; the better châteaux are usually located upon these deep gravel banks

37

What is the most famous estate in Moulis?

 

 

Château Chasse-Spleen

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38

What are the 5 villages of Margaux?

  • Cantenac
  • Labarde 
  • Arsac
  • Margaux
  • Soussans

(C. L. A. M. S.)

 

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39

What is the general style of wine from Margaux?

 

Feminine, floral bouquet, exotic character and finesse

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40

What is the first identifiable vineyard estate in the Graves region?

 

Château Pape-Clément

  • Papal gift awarded to Bordeaux in 1305

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41

What is boulbenes?

 

soil mixture of sand, gravel and light clay

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42

Who was responsible for carrying out the categorization of the classifications?

 

the region's courtiers

  • Categorized by pre-existing prices first through fifth growths

44

In what year was the communal sub-appellation Pessac-Léognan created?

 

1987

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46

What are three smaller sweet wine appellations in Graves?

  • Cérons
  • Barsac
  • Sauternes

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47

Sauternes is produced from what 3 grapes?

 

  • Sémillon
  • Sauvignon Blanc
  • Muscadelle

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48

Sauternes lies at the confluence of what two rivers?

 

Ciron and Garonne Rivers

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49

Why does a producer have to pick botyrtis grapes in tries (multiple trips through the vineyards)?

 

Because, botrytis does not attack grapes evenly; some grapes might be more afflicted than others at different points in hang time

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50

What is the one Premier Cru Supérieur in Sauternes?

 

Château d'Yquem

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52

What is the name of dry wine produced Château d'Yquem?

 

"Y" ("Ygrec")

  • Labeled as Bordeaux or Bordeaux Supérieur

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53

Sauternes covers what 5 villages?

 

  • Sauternes
  • Barsac
  • Fargues
  • Preignac
  • Bommes

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54

What is the min must weight of Sauternes AOP and Barsac AOP?

 

221 g/l

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55

What is the min rs required in the finished wines of Sauternes AOP and Barsac AOP?

 

45 g/l rs

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56

Who releases "Creme de Tête", a Sauternes aged for decades in concrete vats?

 

Château Gilette

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57

Château Ausone's name is an homage to what?

 

Ausonius, a 4th century Roman poet who may (or may not) have planted his vines at the site of the current estate

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58

What is unique about Château Figeac in St-Émilion?

 

Cabernet Sauvignon is a major component of the blend

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59

What are the two broadly categorized types of soils in St-Émilion?

 

côtes - steep hillside slopes of limestone 

graves - gravelly limestone plateau resembling soils of the Médoc

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60

In what year was St-Émilion's three-tier classification published?; in what years were there revisions to the classification?

 

1955; 1969, 1985, 1996, and 2012

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61

What are the requirements for a wine labeled St-Émilion Grand Cru AOP?

 

  • + 0.5% alcohol
  • Longer élevage than wines simply labeled St-Émilion AOP 

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62

What is Pomerol's size in acres?

 

1,930 acres

  • Just 5 square miles, tiny AOP
  • vs. St-Émilion: 13,000 acres

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63

What is crasse de fer?

 

  • Pomerol subsoil
  • Iron pan and rich clay

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64

Describe the wines of Pétrus.

 

- hedonistic, plump, opulent

- gen 70-80 Merlot, 20-25 Cab Franc

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66

The Cru Bourgeois originally divided 444 properties into what three categories?

 

Cru Bourgeois Exceptionnel

Cru Bourgeois Supérieur

Cru Bourgeois

67

Name five of the best properties in Pomerol.

 

  • Château Pétrus
  • Vieux-Château-Certan
  • Château Lafleur
  • Château Le Pin
  • Château Trotanoy

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68

Name two châteaux among the vanguard of the "microchâteau", or garagistes movement.

  • Le Pin - Pomerol
  • Valandraud - St-Émilion
  • La Mondotte - St-Émilion

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69

Le Pin is a château located in what AOP?

 

Pomerol AOP

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70

Valandraud is a château located in what AOP?

 

St-Émilion AOP

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71

How many bottles does Le Pin make annually?

 

around 6000 

  • vs. Château Latour's 150-180,000 bottles of grand vin

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72

What are the 4 satellite appellations for St-Émilion ?

 

  • Montagne
  • Lussac
  • Puisseguin
  • St-Georges

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73

Néac, Fronsac AOP, and Canon-Fronsac AOP are located within what larger appellation?

 

Lalande-de-Pomerol AOP

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74

For which vintage did Château Mouton Rothschild select two different labels?

1975

1978

1982

1978

  • Artist - Jean-Paul Riopelle​

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89

Samuel Pepys famously extolled the virtues of "Ho-Bryan" in what year?

1663

92

White wine accounts for what percentage of Graves production?

 

25%

99

Sweet whites may be produced throughout Graves as what designation?

 

Graves Supérieur AOP

105

Name two vintages that Château d'Yquem did not produce a Sauternes.

1992

1974

119

What is Cabernet Franc known as in Pomerol?

 

Bouchet

129

What is the oldest family owning a classified growth in the Médoc?

Rothschild

Barton

Miailhe

Barton