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1

Define biotechnology.

The use of an organism, or component of an organism or other biological system, to make a product of process.

2

Define molecular biology.

The study of the molecular basis of the processes of DNA replication and the central dogma.

3

What is DNA technology?

Applying DNA-based techniques for the manipulation of genes and genetic material at the molecular level.

4

What is biotechnology used to discover - name some.

Evolution, gene expression, growth and development, genetic diseases, roles of proteins.

5

Why is molecular genetics difficult ?

DNA molecules are very long and carry many genes. Only a small portion of the DNA molecule will code for genes and it is difficult to find where a gene begins and ends in a long nucleotide sequence.

6

What is the overall purpose of gene cloning?

Creates multiple copies of the desired gene.

7

What must be present for gene cloning to occur?

Cloning vectors.

8

What is rDNA?

Recombinant DNA - DNA recombines from 2 different sources.

9

What are the 2 possible aims of gene cloning?

To produce a protein product for further research or practical use.
OR
To produce multiple copies of a gene.

10

Why is gene cloning used to produce multiple copies of a gene?

Sequencing analysis, to transform an organism with the gene.

11

Name methods of gene cloning.

PCR - polymerase chain reaction.
Using recombinant gene technology.

12

How overall does the process of genetic cloning work?

Isolation of plasmid DNA and DNA containing gene of interest.
Gene of interest inserted into plasmid.
Recombinant DNA formed.
Recombinant Plasmid inserted into bacterial cell.
Cells clones with gene of interest.
Make copies of genes formed.

13

Name the 2 most common DNA vectors.

E.coli
Bacteriophage gamma vectors

14

Why don't we use gene cloning to produce carbohydrates?

Genes code for proteins not sugars.

15

What is the benefit of using E.coli as a DNA vector in gene cloning?

It divides rapidly (every 30 minutes) and so the desired gene is amplified rapidly.

16

What is the purpose of polymerase chain reaction (PCR)?

Used to clone and amplify a specific section of DNA.

17

What is meant by PCR amplifying DNA?

Copying it many times.

18

What cloning vectors and bacterial cells does the polymerase chain reaction require?

None

19

Where is DNA amplified by the polymerase chain reaction?

In vitro

20

What is the purpose of gel electrophoresis?

Used to sort a mixture of DNA into molecular bands. Each band contains DNA molecules of the same base-pair length.

21

What method is used to visualise and analyse produces of the polymerase chain reaction?

Gel electrophoresis

22

What method is used to visualise and analyse restriction fragments of DNA?

Gel electrophoresis.

23

What are restriction fragments of DNA?

Sections of DNA which are produced as a result of a restriction endonuclease cutting the DNA.

24

What are the characteristics of DNA molecules within each band of gel electrophoresis?

All have the same base-pair length.

25

Define proteome.

Every protein that the gene is capable of making.

26

What is DNA profiling?

Using DNA to distinguish between individuals.

27

Name some practical uses of DNA profiling.

Paternity identification
Victim identification
Suspect identification

28

What section of the DNA profile identifies different individuals and why?

Short tandem repeats?
They are different in every individual and have varying number of repeat sequences?

29

How do the short tandem repeats of a DNA profile change in every individual?

They contain a different number of repetitive sequences.

30

What are polymorphic regions of DNA?

Varying regions of DNA in the non-coding sections of the genome. Site of heterozygosity for any sequence.