Flashcards in General Deck (28)
Theories are an organized set of claims and judgements about how the world works, both implicit and explicit.
Happens when common starting points can no longer be taken for granted
Cannot avoid theory, need to constantly employ theoretical tools.
Notion of dominant paradigms does not neglect the less dominant features of the time
Hubbard et al. 2002
Theories can be known as dominant paradigms
Ways of knowing drive research but also the creative potential as a discipline.
At broadest = set of statements and psopositions used to explain or interpret
Different claims forms a set to perform a theory in the singular
Gregory et al. 2009
Ways of being
Ontology and discourse
E.g. power and domination - W devel strategy is seen as the ontological basis. Discourse may produce what is ontologically created.
Using term discourse also implies an ontology as presume that there are discourses - sometimes in discinction from something else e.g. discourse and practice, or discourse and the material world
Epistemology - ways of knowing. Theories, philosophies, constantly: refined, challenges, transformed
Aitken and Valentine 2006
All theories/knowledges are situated - not neutral or objective. Constructed partial, situated, positioned knowledge: fiction and theory situated
Limitation of feminism - it is theoretically based, so thus relies on a particular way of knowing the world produced from theoretical understanding
Thus is a multitude of theories - theoretical frameworks never fixed
E.g. diff theoretical understandings of how the finan crisis began
Casatree et al. 2005
Theories akin to a map - practical means for understanding, engaging with world once understand theory itself. Provides us with routes and way of understanding what's around
David Harvey 1960
Concepts provide direction for thinking - moving beyond what we know
Concept of state of emergency - normal space transforms. what are the consequences of this?
E.g. pol authority - who can enter/exist space in event of emergence
ANT can help us understand this trnasformation through relations and networks
Concept of uneven devel - why areas in relation to UBS decline and then suddenly ^ in value
As a theoretical framework, fem grounded in ontology & epistemology dedicated to:
Producing knowledge that promotes social change
Blunt and Wills 2000
Multiple competing models and theories of doing things, all with aim of being consequential. Consensus among geogs at any one time that there is one best way of doing things has seldom been stable
Hubbard et al. 2002
Deconstructing binaries of human geog.
Cloke and Johnstone 2004
To survive in world, we simplify it - using categs for self-identif - social constructions.
Catego therefore aren't just 'normal' within society, but necessary for it.
Without simplifications, societies couldn't exist e.g. who qualifies for subsidized uni ed?
Categ freq using in creating collective & personal identitie s- binaries - us and them
Binary creating difference - much geopol thinking involves promoting 'positive images of 'us' and negatives ones of 'them' - 'nothing can be one thing and its opposite at the same time'
We need to escape tyranny of dualisms
Third space combines the material and the symbolic to elude the politics of polarized binaries. Enables emergence of radical new alligiances - old structures of auth challenged. New emancipatory practices - recogs incorporation of excluded others
Critique of fem: theoretical understaning of world informed by comb of local experiences and broad generalisations. Conflict with emancip goals of fem theory to free silenced voices
Raghuram and Marge 2008
In order to radically restructure the 'right to theorize', fem theory advocates use of action-oriented, dialogic methodologies to provide resistance X the existing, dominating paradigms.
Dislodge the hierarchic knowlege presented by researchers
Constructions of societal identities relates to theory of performativity
Social norms legitimized through repetition - constructed phenomena. The identities have no ontological foundations
Huey and Berndt 208
Discourses are entangled in networks of power
Gregson and Rose 1999