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Flashcards in General Definitions Deck (22)
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1
Q

Movement

A

The act of moving

Sum of all torques

2
Q

Science

A

Latin scientia, means knowledge

3
Q

Biomechanics

A

application of mechanics to biological systems

4
Q

Kinesiology

A

study of movement

5
Q

Kinetics

A

quantification of forces (as scalars or vectors)

  • forces that produce or change motion
  • Linear – causes of linear motion;
  • Angular – causes of angular motion
6
Q

Kinematics

A

quantification of motion (vectors)

  • geometry of motion
  • Describe time, displacement, velocity, & acceleration
  • Linear -motion in straight line; angular - rotating
7
Q

Torques

A

Rotational Forces

8
Q

Movement subsystems

A
  • Control centre/motor centre
  • Passive subsystem
  • Active subsystem
9
Q

Control Centre

A
  • Brain
  • CNS
  • PNS
10
Q

Passive Subsystem

A
  • Bones
  • Joints
  • Ligaments
  • Facia (between active and passive)
11
Q

Active Subsystem

A
  • Muscles

- Tendons

12
Q

Joints

A

The skeleton is a system of levers that rotate about fixed points when force is applied.

Degrees: measures angular displacement.

  • Ball & Socket
  • Plane
  • Hinge
  • Saddle
  • Pivot
  • Condyloid (Ellipsoid)
13
Q

Fascia

A
  • It forms a whole-body continuous three-dimensional matrix of structural support. Fascia interpenetrates and surrounds all organs, muscles, bones and nerve fibres, creating a unique environment for body systems functioning
  • Acts as scaffolding to support whole body
  • Role is gradually being understood
14
Q

External Factors to movement

A

Environment

Context of movement

15
Q

Internal Factors to movement

A

Motivation

Emotional

16
Q

Quantitative movement analysis

A

Cause of movement – ie the forces and moments – are calculated from the outcome movement

That means we need to work out what forces act on each body segment to cause/affect the movement

17
Q

Levers

A

Consists of a rigid body with two externally applied forces and a point of rotation.

The two forces can be either on the same or opposite sides of the centre of rotation (COR).

3 classes of levers
- First
- Second
- Third
Classification is based on fulcrum position in relation to the effort
18
Q

First class levers

A

Fulcrum is positioned between the force and the resistance

If the fulcrum of the lever is exactly halfway between effort and resistance the mechanical advantage will be 1

Anatomical Examples

  • Triceps Brachii inserting into olecranon
  • Head extensors (upper cervical spine) inserting into occiput
  • Trunk Side Flexors
19
Q

Second class levers

A

Resistance is between force and fulcrum

  • Has a mechanical advantage > 1
  • allows large force generation
  • has a force advantage

Anatomical Examples

  • Triceps Surae
  • Rear molars and the muscles of the jaw
20
Q

Third class levers

A

Force between the resistance and the fulcrum

Most common arrangement in the body

Allows great movement

  • Has a mechanical advantage
21
Q

Mechanical Advantage

A

The ratio of distances:

= length of force moment arm / length of resistance moment arm

If >1 then mechanical advantage

If

22
Q

Application of levers

A

If you increase the lever arm it generates more force

But force is needed to rotate the limb around the fulcrum ( hip ) – so shorten the lever first eg flex knee then extend it just before you kick the ball