General Embryology Flashcards Preview

Oral Biology > General Embryology > Flashcards

Flashcards in General Embryology Deck (39)
Loading flashcards...
1

primordium

earliest indication of a tissue or an organ during prenatal development

2

autocrine regulation of growth factors

growth factor produced by a cell that recaptures its own products

3

paracrine regulation of growth factors

growth factors synthesized by one cell can diffuse over small distances to induce changes

4

endocrine regulation of growth factors

growth factor produced in one cell travels in the blood to distant locations to act on another cell

5

hemeobox genes

involved in bodily segmentation during embryonic development

6

what are two results of the primitive streak?

germ layer formation and bilateral symmetry

7

What type of cells invaginate during gastrulation?

ectodermal cells

8

What happens in the transition of epithelial cells to mesenchyme?

epithelial cells detach from basement membrane and are able to migrate

9

neural plate

central band of cells from cephalic to caudal end. The neural plate thickens and invaginates to form the neural groove

10

morula

solid ball of cells

11

blastocyst

vesicle that implants in the endometrium

12

induction

one group of cells induces another group of cells to change

13

proliferation

control of cellular growth and accumulation of biproducts

14

appositional growth

tissue enlarges its size by the addition of layers on the outside of a structure

15

interstitial growth

growth the occurs deep within a tissue

16

differentiation

change in embryonic cells to become to become distinct structurally and functionally

17

morphogenesis

development of specific tissue structures that lead to increasing complexity of structure and function of cells

18

maturation

attainment of adult function and size

19

ectoderm

epidermis, epithelium, nervous sytem, mammary and cutaneous glands

20

endoderm

respiratory, digestive system lining. live and pancreas

21

mesoderm

dermis, muscles, bone, bone, dentin, blood, cementum, cartilage, reproductive and excritory systems

22

HOX genes

patterning of body axis and anterior posterior polarity

23

DLX Genes

control Proximal and Distal develpment of ectodermal tissues of the branchial arch skeleton

24

what is gastrulation

ectodermal cells invaginate. Mesoblast cells form true embroyonic endoderm and mesoderm.

25

mesenchyme

loose aggregate of unorganized (nonpolar) cells. Can migrate

26

neural plate

central band of cells from cephalic to caudal end. This plate grows and thickens. It becomes deep and invaginates to form the neural groove

27

teratogens

environmental factos (drugs, chemical, infections) - involved in congenital malformations

28

tetracycline

stains teeth

29

syphalis can casue

hutchins incisors or mulburry molars

30

half life of growth factors

very short

31

growth factors are what type of molecule?

peptides

32

calcium dependant cell adhesion molecules

cadherins

33

calcium independant adhesion molecules

cam

34

preimplantation period

1st week after conception - female ovum is penetrated by sperm and is fertilized = zygote

35

final stages of meiosis occur where

during fertilazation, the final stages of meiosis occur in the ovum

36

mitosis produces

diploid cells

37

meiosis produces

haploid cells

38

normal humans have how many chromosomes?

46 (2 haploid cells come together -23 chromosomes each to form a diploid number of 46)

39

down syndrome

trisomy 21, estra chromosome 21 is present after meitotic division