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Flashcards in General pharm Deck (13):
1

How does bupropion work?

Dopamine and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor
Antidepressant
Reduces nicotine cravings

2

How does varenicline work?

Full agonism on α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and is a partial agonist on the α4β2, α3β4, and α6β2 subtypes.
Partial agonism acts as competitive inhibition with nicotine, with less effect on the dopamine system.

3

Which medications may precipitate serotonin syndrome?

Levodopa
Tramadol
Fentanyl
SSRIs
SNRIs
TCAs
MAOIs
5-HT3 receptor antagonists
Metoclopramide
Valproate
Carbamazepine
Triptans
Lithium

4

Which medications can cause neuroleptic malignant syndrome?

Haloperidol
Risperidone
Olanzepine
Quetiapine
Clozapine
Amisulpride
Aripiprazole
Metoclopramide
Prochlorperazine
Droperidol
Domperidone

5

What are 3 substances with zero order kinetics?

EtOH
Aspirin
Phenytoin

6

What is the relationship between the following?
- Dose rate (Rd)
- Plasma concentration (Cp)
- Clearance (CL)

Rd = Cp x CL

7

How is the elimination rate constant K defined in terms of the following?
- Volume of distribution (Vd) and clearance (CL)
- Half-life (T-half)

K = CL / Vd

K = ln2 / T-half

8

How is the loading dose calculated based on the volume of distribution (Vd) and plasma concentration (Cp)?

Loading dose = Vd x Cp

9

Name 5 drugs that inhibit p-glycoprotein

Verapamil
Clarithromycin
Ritonavir
Amiodarone
Ketoconazole

10

How do digoxin, dabigatran, loperamide, tacrolimus, cyclosporin, and erythromycin all interact with p-glycoprotein?

They are all substrates

11

Which features are typical of DRESS (Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms)?

1. Exposure to an implicated drug 2-6 weeks prior to symptoms
2. Morbilliform eruption progressing to confluent and infiltrated erythema or exfoliative dermatitis involving >90 percent of the total body surface area (BSA)
3. Eosinophilia or atypical lymphocytsosis
4. Systemic symptoms and organ involvement:
- Fever
- Lymphadenopathy
- Renal impairment
- Pneumonitis / pleural effusion
- Myocarditis
- Abnormal LFTs

12

What affect does urinary alkalinsation have on aspirin excretion?

Aspirin, being an acidic medication, is ionised in alkaline urine, and hence excreted more efficiently (ionised drugs are more water-soluble)

13

What is the mechanism of action of methyldopa?

Conversion to alpha-methylnoradrenaline, which is a potent central alpha-2 agonist