Flashcards in General pharm Deck (13):
How does bupropion work?
Dopamine and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor
Reduces nicotine cravings
How does varenicline work?
Full agonism on α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and is a partial agonist on the α4β2, α3β4, and α6β2 subtypes.
Partial agonism acts as competitive inhibition with nicotine, with less effect on the dopamine system.
Which medications may precipitate serotonin syndrome?
5-HT3 receptor antagonists
Which medications can cause neuroleptic malignant syndrome?
What are 3 substances with zero order kinetics?
What is the relationship between the following?
- Dose rate (Rd)
- Plasma concentration (Cp)
- Clearance (CL)
Rd = Cp x CL
How is the elimination rate constant K defined in terms of the following?
- Volume of distribution (Vd) and clearance (CL)
- Half-life (T-half)
K = CL / Vd
K = ln2 / T-half
How is the loading dose calculated based on the volume of distribution (Vd) and plasma concentration (Cp)?
Loading dose = Vd x Cp
Name 5 drugs that inhibit p-glycoprotein
How do digoxin, dabigatran, loperamide, tacrolimus, cyclosporin, and erythromycin all interact with p-glycoprotein?
They are all substrates
Which features are typical of DRESS (Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms)?
1. Exposure to an implicated drug 2-6 weeks prior to symptoms
2. Morbilliform eruption progressing to confluent and infiltrated erythema or exfoliative dermatitis involving >90 percent of the total body surface area (BSA)
3. Eosinophilia or atypical lymphocytsosis
4. Systemic symptoms and organ involvement:
- Renal impairment
- Pneumonitis / pleural effusion
- Abnormal LFTs
What affect does urinary alkalinsation have on aspirin excretion?
Aspirin, being an acidic medication, is ionised in alkaline urine, and hence excreted more efficiently (ionised drugs are more water-soluble)