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Flashcards in General Physiology Review Deck (34):
1

You order a blood test. When you receive the lab report there is a note that the blood was lysed when it was drawn. Which of the following readings could be erroneously (incorrectly) elevated?

Potassium because you have high potassium inside the cells, and if the RBCs are all lysed, then you will have a high potassium level just floating around

2

Which of the following would require energy?
A) Na into cell
B) glucose into cell
C) K into cell
D) chloride into cell

Potassium into cell (c)

3

Sodium, chloride, and bicarb are where primarily?

ECF

4

Would lysing RBCs have an affect on the extracellular concentration of:
1) sodium
2) potassium
3) chloride
4) bicarb

1) no
2) yes!
3) no
4) no

5

If we open up a sodium channel on the cell membrane, which way does it flow?

Into the cell

6

How often do cells need glucose?

All the time. They are pretty much starved for it at all times. Therefore, it won't really need energy to get into the cells

7

Where is there a lot of chloride?

ECF (outside the cell)

8

What would cause the membrane potential to become more negative?

Closure of sodium leak channel

9

What would closing of a potassium leak channel do to the cell?

Trapping positive charge (potassium) inside cell, making it more positive

10

What would closing of a chloride leak channel do to the cell?

Chloride wants to move into cell, adding negative charges, making membrane potential more negative if it is open; if it is closed, it will be less negative b/c we are stopping the addition of negative charges

11

What would closing of an aquaporin channel do to the cell?

Won't move water..who cares?

12

What would closing of a sodium leak channel do to the cell?

Sodium moves into the cell, adding positive charges into the cell, making it more positive; if this is closed, it would make it more negative

13

Closure of what channel is very important in phototransduction?

Sodium channel

14

Which junction is the most restsrictive celllular junction?

Tight junction

15

What makes up gap junctions?

6 connexins

16

Where are gap junctions found?

Smooth muscle
(Where you have to have very coordinated movement)
Vascular muscle (bladder, gut)

17

Are gap junctions chemical or electrical junctions?

Electrical

18

Structural spot-welds for support

Anchoring junctions

19

Cell-to-cell anchoring junctions

Desmosomes

20

Cell to ECM anchoring junctions

Hemidesmosomes

21

Areas where tight junctions are found

Eye, brain, testes

22

Junction where cell membranes touch, and are super restrictive, where most movement is transcellular

Zonula occluden

23

Where are zonula occludens found?

Blood-brain barrier

24

Junction where the space between cellular membranes varies and filtration can occur

Zonula adherens

25

Where are zonula adherens found?

Kidney, blood vessels

26

During aqueous humor production, sodium is actively pumped into the anterior chamber. What occurs due to this?

-Water follows through aquaporins
(Na was pumped through tight junctions)
-Potassium moves in opposite direction
-Chloride follows through ion channels if it can
-Bicarbonate follows through ion channels

27

During urine production, glucose is actively pumped into the cell. What occurs due to this?

Create concentration difference of a molecule that cannot cross a membrane, generating osmotic pressure, pulling water with it

28

Administration of a(n) _____ will increase aqueous humor production

Beta 2 agonist

29

Role of alpha 1 receptors

Pupil dilation

30

Are alpha receptors sympathetics or parasympathetics?

Sympathetics

31

Role of alpha 2 receptors

Reduce aqueous humor formation by reducing B2 release

32

What can you give pt's who have some open angle glaucoma in order to reduce production of aqueous humor

Beta blockers

33

Role of beta 2 receptors

-Ciliary relaxation for distance
-Increase aqueous humor production

34

Are beta 2 receptors in the eye sympathetics or parasympathetics?

Sympathetics