Genes, Chromosomes, Genomes Flashcards Preview

Molecular Genetics > Genes, Chromosomes, Genomes > Flashcards

Flashcards in Genes, Chromosomes, Genomes Deck (64)
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1

What is the central dogma of molecular biology?

there is a directional flow from DNA to protein via the messenger RNA (mRNA)

2

What is DNA transcribed to?

mRNA

3

What is mRNA translated to?

protein

4

What is gene expression?

process of going from DNA to protein

5

What is a codon?

triplets of bases that code for an amino acid

6

What are the three components to the chemical makeup of DNA?

Pentose sugar
Nucleotides
Phosphate groups

7

What are the pyrimidines?

Cytosine
Thymine
Uracil

8

What are the purines?

Adenine
Guanine

9

What is the difference betweeen pyrimidines and purines?

purines contain a sixmembered nitrogencontaining ring fused to an imidazole ring
whereas pyrimidines contain only a sixmembered nitrogencontaining ring

10

What makes a nucleoside?

base + sugar

11

What is a nucleotide?

monomer unit of DNA/RNA
base + sugar + phosphate group

12

What does a phosphodiester bond link?

Phosphate and sugar group for the sugar-phosphate backbone of DNA

13

What are combinations of base pairs?

G-C
A-T/U

14

How many hydrogen bonds between G-C bases?

3

15

How many hydrogen bonds can adenine form to another base?

2

16

Which bonds are stronge A-T or G-C?

G-C

17

What is hybridisation?

process of combining two complementary single-stranded DNA or RNA molecules

18

What is renaturation also reffered to as?

hybridisation

19

True or False?
Tm is the temp at which all the DNA has melted?

False
Tm is when half the DNA has melted

20

True or False?
Tm is lower in DNA with high G-C content

False
Tm is higher in DNA with high G-C content

21

True or False?
GC rich regions of DNA are more strongly bonded

True

22

True or False?
Repeats in DNA sequences lead to longer renaturation times

False
repeats hybridise faster because there are more copies

23

How much of the human genome is actually genes?

~25%

24

What percent of the human genome encodes for proteins?

~1.5%

25

What is an allele?

different forms of genes

26

What study found that genes lie on chromosomes?

1910
Thomas Hunt Morgan

27

Who found that Chromosomes contain genes in linear array?

19-13
Alfred Henry Sturtevant

28

What is most of the gene made of?

Introns and regulatory DNA sequences

29

What is a gene?

stretch of DNA that functions as a unit to give rise to either RNA or a protein

30

What is the sense strand also reffered to as?

The coding strand