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Flashcards in Genetic Engineering Deck (15):

What is genetic engineering?

Genetic engineering is the deliberate modification of the characteristics of an organism by manipulating its genetic material.


Describe genetic engineering.

Once the required gene is located it is cut out using an enzyme. The plasmid is removed from the bacterial cell and it is cut using an enzyme. The gene is inserted into the plasmid and the plasmid is inserted back into the bacterial cell. The bacterial cell multiplies creating more copies of the gene and product is produced in large quantities.


What is growth and reproduction in bacteria caused by?

The growth and reproduction of bacteria is controlled by their chromosomal material.


What is a plasmid?

A plasmid is a small circle of extra DNA.


What happens to genetically engineered bacteria?

Genetically engineered bacteria can produce large quantities of a desired substance very quickly.


What are some products of genetic engineering?

Products of genetic engineering include: insulin, Human Growth Hormone and antibiotics.


Why is the need for insulin likely to increase?

The need for insulin is likely to increase because the other source is not identical to human insulin and the number of people being diagnosed with diabetes is likely to increase as a result of increasing life expectancy.


What is diabetes?

Diabetes is a condition where the amount of glucose in your body is too high because the body cannot use it properly, due to a problem with the hormone, insulin.


Describe type 1 and type 2 diabetes.

Type 1 diabetes is when there is not insulin produced so insulin has to be injected. Type 2 diabetes is when the insulin produced does not work effectively or the body’s cells do not react to it. Tablets are used to help reduced this.


Why is diabetes increasing?

Diabetes is increasing because world population is increasing, obesity is increasing and people are living longer.


What are some advantages for genetic engineering?

It is quicker and cheaper, some people are allergic to animal insulin and some people do not like using products from slaughtered animals.


What is gene therapy?

Gene therapy is the introduction of genes into a person’s DNA in order to treat a disease.


What are stem cells?

Stem cells are undifferentiated (not adopted yet) cells produced by mitosis.


Where are stem cells found?

They are found in embryos- these can develop into any type of cell and found in adult tissue- these can repair some adult tissue.


What are stem cells used for?

Stem cells are used for repairing certain parts of the body i.e. bone marrow, parts of the brain and the spine.