Darwinists vs Mendelists
Darwin predict continuous change. Mendel predicts discrete traits and sudden appearance. Darwinists say that random mutations are too unpredictable and can’t change entire populations
created by Darwinists. they model populations as pools of alleles or gene pools using mendel’s idea that alleles come in pairs.
as long as certain conditions are met, allele frequencies remain constant from generation to generation with no evolution
Hardy- Weinberg equilibrium
both scientists tried to model a sexually reproducing gene pool that would not evolve. they had to impose five restrictions on it so it would work. this rarely actually happens in nature
value on Hardy Weinberg equilibrium
serves as a control for evolution. can simulate populations and violate assumptions to figure out how factors affect rate of evolution. useful tool for describing genetic structure of reasonable stable population or for measuring rates of change in an evolving one.
Group of individuals from the same species in a given area
total number of alleles at all gene loci in the population
proportion or percentage of a certain allele of a specific gene in the population
frequency of a specific genotype in a population
frequency of a specific phenotype in a population
change of allelic frequency in a population in a short period of time
speciation and macroevolution
evolution over a long period of time. may lead to formation of new species (speciation) from a common ancestor.
P and q
P^2, 2pq, q^2
5 restrictions on hardy equilibrium
- No mutations must occur so that new alleles do not enter the population.
- No gene flow can occur (i.e. no immigration/emigration of individuals into, or out of, the population).
- Random mating must occur (i.e. individuals must pair by chance)
- The population must be large so that no genetic drift (random chance) can cause the allele frequencies to change.
- No natural selection can occur so that certain alleles are not selected for, or against.