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Flashcards in Genetics and Heredity Deck (27):

Explain Mendel's principles of inheritance. including Law of segregation.

Traits are controlled by a pair of of factors (genes), these factors that occur in pairs are separated from each other during gamete formation and recombined during fertilization.


Explain Mendel's principles of inheritance. including Law of dominance.

Some traits are stronger or dominant and will hide weaker recessive traits. When a organism is heterozygous for for a pair of contrasting traits, only the dominant can be seen.


Explain Mendel's principles of inheritance. including Law of independent assortment

States that the alleles of two (or more) different genes get sorted into gametes independently of one another, the allele for one gene doesn't affect the allele focus.


What is the difference between homozygous, heterozygous, homozygous dominant vs. recessive?

Homozygous describe an organism that has tow dientical alleles of a gene. Heterozygous: describes an organism that has two different alleles of a gene Dominant: when it has an allele is shown over another gene. Recessive: when a gene is hidden by Dominant genes


What is the difference between genotype and phenotype? Genotypic and phenotypic rations?

Genotypes is the genetic makeup of an organism or group of organisms with reference to a single trait.

Phenotypes are the traits shown by the organisms expressed by the genotype.

Genotypic ratios are the ratios between the different genotypes

Phenotypic ratios are the ratios of the traits expressed.


Define the following: P generation

The parental generation; in breeding, the organisms that are initially crossed


Define the following: F1 generation

The first filial generation; the offspring of a cross of the P generation


Define the following: F2 generation

The second filial generation; the offspring of a cross between individuals in the F1 generations.


Define the following: phenotypic ratio

The ratio of the physical expression of a trait


Define the following: genotypic ratio

The ration of the genetic makeup of a trait


Define the following: dominant alleles

Stronger allele, expressed over recessive ones


Define the following: recessive alleles

Weaker allele, expressed when a organisms has two recessive alleles.


Define the following: purebred

An organism whose ancestors on both sides have been members of a recognized breed (homozygous alleles)


Define the following: hybrid

The result of interbreeding between two organisms of different genetic makeup


Define the following: carrier

An organism which inherited a recessive allele for a trait or disease that doesn't display it.


Complete assignment for Monohybrid cross

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Complete assignment for Dihybrid cross

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Complete assignment for Polygenic Inheritance

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Complete assignment for Co-dominance

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Complete assignment for Multiple alleles

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Complete assignment for Sex linked traits

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Prove that there is always a 50/50 chance of having a boy or a girl as an offspring. Use a punnet square to justify your answer

Do Punnett square with XX and XY.


Explain what a sex linked trait is. Provide several exaples of sex linked trait problems.

A sex linked trait is traits controlled by genes on the X or Y chromosomes.
ex) hemophilia, colour blindness, male pattern baldness, Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy.


Go through your assignments/review and redo 3 sex linked trait problems. Check your answers.

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List the various symbols and shading techniques used in a pedigree.

circle female square male

shaded = affected
non shaded= non affected

small dot= died in infancy

small not in shape= carrier


What is a pedigree? List the various symbols used in a pedigree. Be able to draw a pedigree based on given information

A pedigree is a flowchart that uses symbols to show the inheritance patterns of traits in a family over many generations. To see symbols look at the previous question


Using the pedigree in the review identify the female carriers.

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