Flashcards in Genetics and Heredity Deck (27):
Explain Mendel's principles of inheritance. including Law of segregation.
Traits are controlled by a pair of of factors (genes), these factors that occur in pairs are separated from each other during gamete formation and recombined during fertilization.
Explain Mendel's principles of inheritance. including Law of dominance.
Some traits are stronger or dominant and will hide weaker recessive traits. When a organism is heterozygous for for a pair of contrasting traits, only the dominant can be seen.
Explain Mendel's principles of inheritance. including Law of independent assortment
States that the alleles of two (or more) different genes get sorted into gametes independently of one another, the allele for one gene doesn't affect the allele focus.
What is the difference between homozygous, heterozygous, homozygous dominant vs. recessive?
Homozygous describe an organism that has tow dientical alleles of a gene. Heterozygous: describes an organism that has two different alleles of a gene Dominant: when it has an allele is shown over another gene. Recessive: when a gene is hidden by Dominant genes
What is the difference between genotype and phenotype? Genotypic and phenotypic rations?
Genotypes is the genetic makeup of an organism or group of organisms with reference to a single trait.
Phenotypes are the traits shown by the organisms expressed by the genotype.
Genotypic ratios are the ratios between the different genotypes
Phenotypic ratios are the ratios of the traits expressed.
Define the following: P generation
The parental generation; in breeding, the organisms that are initially crossed
Define the following: F1 generation
The first filial generation; the offspring of a cross of the P generation
Define the following: F2 generation
The second filial generation; the offspring of a cross between individuals in the F1 generations.
Define the following: phenotypic ratio
The ratio of the physical expression of a trait
Define the following: genotypic ratio
The ration of the genetic makeup of a trait
Define the following: dominant alleles
Stronger allele, expressed over recessive ones
Define the following: recessive alleles
Weaker allele, expressed when a organisms has two recessive alleles.
Define the following: purebred
An organism whose ancestors on both sides have been members of a recognized breed (homozygous alleles)
Define the following: hybrid
The result of interbreeding between two organisms of different genetic makeup
Define the following: carrier
An organism which inherited a recessive allele for a trait or disease that doesn't display it.
Complete assignment for Monohybrid cross
Complete assignment for Dihybrid cross
Complete assignment for Polygenic Inheritance
Complete assignment for Co-dominance
Complete assignment for Multiple alleles
Complete assignment for Sex linked traits
Prove that there is always a 50/50 chance of having a boy or a girl as an offspring. Use a punnet square to justify your answer
Do Punnett square with XX and XY.
Explain what a sex linked trait is. Provide several exaples of sex linked trait problems.
A sex linked trait is traits controlled by genes on the X or Y chromosomes.
ex) hemophilia, colour blindness, male pattern baldness, Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy.
Go through your assignments/review and redo 3 sex linked trait problems. Check your answers.
List the various symbols and shading techniques used in a pedigree.
circle female square male
shaded = affected
non shaded= non affected
small dot= died in infancy
small not in shape= carrier
What is a pedigree? List the various symbols used in a pedigree. Be able to draw a pedigree based on given information
A pedigree is a flowchart that uses symbols to show the inheritance patterns of traits in a family over many generations. To see symbols look at the previous question