GEOGRAPHY - Definitions Flashcards
What is the definition of extractive industry, and what are the three type of materials it deals with?
An industry involved in extracting materials from the ground.
- construction materials (sand, limestone)
- metallic minerals (copper)
- industrial minerals (sulfur, salt)
What is the definition of biodiversity?
The rich variety of plants and animals on earth.
What is the definition of monoculture?
An agricultural practice in which a crop is grown over a large area at the expense of other species that naturally lives there.
What is the definition of emissions?
Something discharged into the environment.
- e.g. exhaust fumes from cars
What is the definition of ozone?
A gas created by the action of ultraviolet radiation on oxygen in the stratosphere.
- provides us with a protective screen against ultraviolet radiation
What is the definition of photochemical smog?
Smog produced by the reaction between sunlight and chemical pollutants in the atmosphere.
What is the definition of respiratory diseases?
Illnesses related to the lungs or bronchial system and characterized by breathing difficulties.
- e.g. asthma
What is the definition of smog?
A mixture of particles of pollutants and fog suspended in the air.
What is the definition of temperature inversion?
A situation in which a cold layer of air is trapped under a warmer layer and cannot escape.
- occurs under certain weather conditions and in particular places such as valleys.
What is the definition of topography?
Physical features of an area of land.
- height and shape
What is the definition of acid rain?
Any precipitation that has an acidity higher than the normal range.
- ph below 5.6
What is the definition of greenhouse gas?
A gas in the atmosphere that contributes to the greenhouse effect (the normal level of retention of the sun’s heat within the atmosphere) and the enhanced greenhouse effect.
What is the definition of industrialize?
To introduce large-scale business and industrial activity to a region whose economy was formerly based on agriculture.
What is the definition of particulates?
Small particles of matter suspended in the air.
What is the definition of precipitation?
Moisture that returns to the earth from the atmosphere.
- e.g. rain, hail or snow
What is the definition of weathering?
The process whereby the hard surfaces of items (such as rock) are broken down over time due to the effects of wind, rain, running water etc.
What is the definition of developing country?
A country whose economy is not well developed or diversified, although it may be showing growth in key areas, e.g. agriculture, tourism etc.
What is the definition of headwaters?
Also known as the source of the river, the place where it begins.
What is the definition of artesian?