Geology Flashcards Preview

Science > Geology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Geology Deck (45):
1

Igneous

Rocks that form through the cooling of lava and magma

2

Magma

Hot fluid that is not able to be found below the Earths Surface

3

Lava

Magma that is able to be found above the Earths surface

4

Extrusive

Igneous rocks that form above the Earths surface

5

Intrusive

Igneous rocks that form below the Earths surface

6

Mineral

A natural occurring substance of rock

7

Lithosphere

The outer layer of the Earth

8

Asthenosphere

The upper layer of the Earths mantle

9

Crystal

A piece of a homogeneous solid substance

10

Sedimentary Rocks

A rock that has been formed through the deposition and solidification of sediment

11

Erosian

The process of eroding or being eroded by wind or water

12

Floodpains

Level land that may be submerged by floodwaters

13

Glaciers

A slowly moving mass or river of ice

14

Moraines

A mass of rocks and sediment carried down and deposited by a glacier

15

Sandstone

Sedimentary rock consisting of sand or quartz grains cemented together

16

Mudstone

A dark sedimentary rock formed from consolidated mud

17

Shale

Soft finely stratified sedimentary rock that formed from consolidated mud or clay and can be split easily into fragile plates.

18

Siltstone

Fine-grained sedimentary rock consisting of consolidated silt

19

Conglomerate

A coarse-grained sedimentary rock composed of rounded fragments embedded in a matrix of cementing material such as silica

20

Limestone

A hard sedimentary rock, composed mainly of calcium carbonate or dolomite, used as building material and in the making of cement

21

Coal

A combustible black or dark brown rock consisting chiefly of carbonized plant matter, found mainly in underground seams and used as fuel

22

Rock Salt

Is a type of salt, the mineral (natural) form of sodium chloride

23

Metamorphic rocks

A metamorphic rock is a result of a transformation of a pre-existing rock. The original rock is subjected to very high heat and pressure, which cause obvious physical and/or chemical changes.

24

Metamorphism

Alteration of the composition or structure of a rock by heat, or pressure

25

Mineral

A mineral is a naturally occurring chemical compound, usually of crystalline form and abiogenic in origin. A mineral has one specific chemical composition, whereas a rock can be an aggregate of different minerals or mineraloids.

26

Ores

An ore is an occurrence of rock or sediment that contains sufficient minerals with economically important elements, typically metals, that can be economically extracted from the deposit.

27

Mining

Mining is the extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the earth, usually from an orebody, lode, vein, seam, reef or placer deposit. These deposits form a mineralized package that is of economic interest to the miner.

28

Environmental Impact Statement

An environmental impact statement (EIS), under United States environmental law, is a document required by the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) for certain actions "significantly affecting the quality of the human environment". An EIS is a tool for decision making.

29

Rehabilitated

Return (something, especially a building or environmental feature) to its former condition.

30

Overburden

Rock or soil overlying a mineral deposit, archaeological site, or other underground feature.

31

Open-cut mining

Open-pit, open-cast or open cut mining is a surface mining technique of extracting rock or minerals from the earth by their removal from an open pit or borrow.

32

Underground Mining

Underground hard rock mining refers to various underground mining techniques used to excavate hard minerals, usually those containing metals such as ore containing gold, silver, iron, copper, zinc, nickel, tin and lead, but also involves using the same techniques for excavating ores of gems such as diamonds.

33

Stone Age

The Stone Age was a broad prehistoric period during which stone was widely used to make implements with an edge, a point, or a percussion surface.

34

Alloy

An alloy is a mixture of metals or a mixture of a metal and another element. Alloys are defined by a metallic bonding character. An alloy may be a solid solution of metal elements or a mixture of metallic phases.

35

Flint


A hard grey rock consisting of nearly pure silica (chert), occurring chiefly as nodules in chalk.

36

Percussion Flaking

Definition of percussion flaking. : the shaping of a stone implement by striking or chipping off flakes with another stone or a piece of wood, bone, or antler — compare pressure flaking.

37

Fossil

Any remains, impression, or trace of an animal or plant of a former geological age; evidence of life in the past

38

Folding

The buckling of rocks. It is caused when rocks are under pressure from both sides.

39

Paleontologists

A scientist who studies fossils

40

Relative Age

The age of a rock compared with the age of another rock

41

Carnivores

Animal that eats other animals

42

Scavengers

Animals that eat dead plant and animal material

43

Mould

Cavity in a rock that shows the shape of the hard parts of an organism; types of fungi found growing on the surface of foods

44

Trace Fossils

Fossils that provide evidence, such as footprints, that an organism was present when the rock was formed

45

Extinct

Describes volcanoes that are no longer active. Extinct volcanoes have not erupted for thousands of years and show no sign of future eruption.