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Flashcards in Geology Deck (42):
1

Igneous

Having solidified from lava or magma

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Magma

Hot fluid underneath the Surface of the Earth.

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Lava

Hot fluid erupted from a Volcano, on the Surface of the Earth or above it.

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Intrusive

Solidified Magma Underground to form Intrusions

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Extrusive

Lava flowing from a Volcano

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Mineral

A solid, naturally occurring inorganic substance

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Lithosphere

The Outer part of the earth, consisting of the crust and upper mantle

8

Asthenosphere

The Upper layer of the earth's mantle, below the lithosphere

9

Crystal

A small piece of a substance that has formed naturally into a regular symmetrical shape.

10

Sedimentary Rock

Rocks formed from sediments deposited by water, wind or ice. The sediments are cemented together in layers, under pressure

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Erosion

The wearing away and removal of soil and rock by natural elements, such as wind, waves, rivers and ice, and by human activity

12

Floodplains

Flat, open land beside a river where sediments are deposited during floods

13

Glaciers

Large bodies of ice that move down slopes and push boulders, rocks and gravel in front of them

14

Moraines

Deposit left by movement of a glacier

15

Sandstone

A sedimentary rock with medium-sized grains. The sand grains are cemented together by silica, lime or other salts.

16

Mudstone

A fine-grained, sedimentary rock without layering

17

Shale

A fine-grained sedimentary rock formed in layers by the consolidation of clay

18

Siltstone

A sedimentary rock with a particle size between that of sandstone and mudstone

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Conglomerate

Sedimentary rock containing large particles of various sizes cemented together

20

Limestone

A sedimentary rock formed from the remains of sea organisms. It consists mainly of calcium carbonate.

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Coal

A sedimentary rock formed from dead plants and animals that were buried before rotting completely

22

Rock Salt

A sedimentary deposit formed when a salt lake or seabed dried up. Its main chemical is sodium chloride

23

Mineral Ores

Minerals containing metals of value are called Mineral Ores.

24

Mining

The process of obtaining coal or other minerals from a mine.

25

Environmental Impact Statement (EIS)

A document prepared to describe the effects for proposed activities on the environment.

26

Rehabilitated

The action of restoring something that has been damaged to its former condition.

27

Overburden

Rock or Soil overlying a mineral deposit or other underground feature.

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Open-Cut Mining

A surface mining technique of extracting rock or minerals from the earth by their removal from an open pit or borrow.

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Underground Mining

Underground mining is the process of extracting minerals and ores that are buried too far underground to be mined using surface mining methods.

30

Stone Age

A time in history when early humans used tools and weapons made out of stone.

31

Alloy

A metal made by combining two or more metallic elements.

32

Flint

A hard grey rock consisting of nearly pure silica.

33

Percussion Flaking

The shaping of a stone implement by striking or chipping off flakes with another stone or a piece of wood, bone, or antler.

34

Fossil

The remains or impression of a prehistoric plant or animal embedded and preserved in rock.

35

Folding

The buckling of rocks caused when rocks are under pressure from both sides.

36

Palaeontologist

A Scientist who studies Fossils.

37

Relative Age

The age of a rock compared with the age of another rock.

38

Carnivore

An Animal that eats other Animals.

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Scavenger

Animals that eat Dead Plant and Animal material.

40

Mould

Cavity in a rock that shows the shape of the hard parts of an organism; types of fungi found growing on the surface of foods.

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Trace Fossils

Fossils that provide evidence, such as footprints, that an organism was present when the rock was formed.

42

Extinct

Describes volcanoes that are no longer active. Extinct volcanoes have not erupted for thousands of years and show no sign of future eruption.