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Flashcards in Ger 8 Falls Deck (126)
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1

What is a common devastating problem among older people?

Falls

2

What do falls result in?

Morbidity, mortality, and the use of health care services such as premature nursing home admission

3

What are falls associated with?

One or more risk factors: Weakness, unsteady gait, confusion, medication

4

What can significantly reduce the number of falls?

Attention to these risk factors

5

What is the most cost-effective and overall effectiveness in fall reduction?

A risk factor assessment with targeted intervention, exercise programs, and environmental hazards assessment and changes

6

Why is medical assessment of fall risks and providing appropriate intervention challenging?

Because of the complex nature of falls

7

What are 2 serious clinical problems in older patients?

Falls and unstable balance

8

What do falls cause and increased rate in? (4)

1. Morbidity
2. Mortality
3. Immobility
4. Premature nursing home placement

9

What is the 5th leading cause of death in older adults?

Unintentional injuries (after CV disease, cancer, stroke, pulmonary disorders)

10

What causes 2/3 of unintentional injuries?

Falls

11

In the US what 3/4 of deaths due to falls occur in what % of the population over 65?

13%
-This is a geriatric syndrome

12

What % of 65+ living at home fall at least once each year?

40%

13

Of the 40% of 65+ living at home that fall at least once each year, how many will be hospitalized?

1/40

14

Of the people who are admitted to the hospital after a fall, how many will be alive a year later?

1/2

15

What are the majority of the reasons why people end up at nursing homes?

Repeated falls and instability

16

Where is the lowest rate (0.3-1.6/person annually) of falls for older people?

Community living (generally healthy elderly people over 65)

17

In falls in healthy older people living in the community, what % can induce fractures or require hospitalization?

5% (most don't result in serious injuries)

18

What happens to the rates of falls and associated complications with age?

They steadily rise and are 2X the previous number in over 75 years

19

Where is the highest rate (0.6-3.6/bed annually) of falls in older people?

Those living in long term care institutions

20

Of people in institutions, what % of falls results in fracture or lacerations?

10-25%

21

What fractures are more common between ages 65-75?

Wrist fractures

22

What fractures are more common in ages after 75?

Hip fractures

23

What are complications of falls due to? (3)

Combination of high incidence and high susceptibility to injury
*This is due to high prevalence of clinical diseases (osteoporosis) and age-related changes (reflexes)

24

What is a risk factor for subsequent falls?

Delayed recovery from falls that results in deconditioning

25

What is it called when a patient down-regulates activity because of fear of falling leading to deconditioning, weakness, and abnormal gait, leading to and increase in a fall in the future?

Post-fall anxiety syndrome

26

What are falls the largest cause of according to the National Health Interview Survey?

Restricted activity days (18%)

27

What % of medical expenditures are for fall-related injuries in people over 65?

6%

28

What proportion of deaths due to falls are preventable based on retrospective assessment of causes and circumstance according to the US Public Health Services

2/3

29

What is the most frequently cited cause of falls accounting for 30-50%?

Accidental or environmental

30

What are many of the accidents leading to falls an interaction between?

Environmental hazards and increased susceptibility to hazards because of age and disease