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Flashcards in GERD & PUD Deck (36)
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1

is reflux of gastric contents into the esophagus normal?

yes!

2

how is GERD defined as? do there need to be lesions in order to dx GERD? how do the majority of pts w/GERD present on endoscopy?

reflux leading to sxs, eso muscoal injury or both
there do not need to be lesions in order to dx GERD
majority of pts w/GERD show no abn on upper endoscopy

3

what 4 tests can you use to dx GERD?

EGD
esophageal manometry
24 hr pH testing
gastric emptying study

4

typical sxs of GERD?

heartburn
regurgitation

5

define functional heartburn

sxs of heartburn are present w/o evidence of reflux

6

9 GERD extraesophageal sxs

hoarseness
cough
asthma
pharyngitis
sinusitis
pulmonary fibrosis
tonsillar fibrosis
recurrent otitis media
sleep apnea

7

when can one experience transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxations and what can it lead to?

increase in intra-abdominal pressure can overpower a hypotensive LES and lead to reflux during TLESRs
it is more common to occur for reflux to occur in TLESRs which is triggered by gastric distension and serve to enable gas to vent from the stomach

8

how long do TLESRs last for?

for about 20 secs
last significantly longer than the typical primary peristaltic wave

9

what 7 situations can lead to reflux sxs?

visceral hypersensitivity
delayed gastric emptying
hiatal hernia
decreased defenses
impaired esophageal clearance
bacterial overgrowth
reduced LES pressure

10

what are the 3 types of heartburn/reflux?

acid reflux
"neutral" reflux
functional heartburn

11

how can PPIs lead to both GERD and DGER?

PPIs lead to weakly acidic reflux which leads to dilated intercellular spaces and persistent heartburn sxs

12

what 3 physical settings can lead to GERD, erosive esophagitis or NERD?

sustained esophageal contractions
esophageal visceral hypersenstivity
abnormal tissue resistance

13

what can GERD sxs be exacerbated by?

CRAP
C: coffee, cigarettes, chocolate
R: refined carbs, carbs in general, rxs
A: acid foods, alcohol, allergic foods
P: pop, peppermint, packing food in at bedtime, progesterone

14

what kind of drugs can lead to GERD?

antibiotics (tetracycline)
bisphospohates (alendronate, ibandronate, risedronate)
iron supplements
quinidine
pain relievers (ibuprofen, aspirin)
potassium supplements
anticholinergics
tricyclic antidepressants
calcium channel blockers and nitrates used for high blood pressure and heart dz
narcotics (codeine, those containing hydrocodone and acetaminophen)
progesterone
quinidine
sedatives or tranquilizers (benzodiazepines, diazepam, temazepam)
theophylline

15

what %age of adults with NERD do not have relief of sxs with anti-reflux medications?

over 40% do not respond to standard medical anti-reflux tx

16

what is significantly increased following the use of acid suppression therapies? what other dz can this dz play a potential role in developing?

non-acid reflux
widespread use of acid suppression and the development of non-acid reflux can potentially play a role for developing idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

17

what are some great supplements to help relieve heartburn?

aloe vera leaf inner fillet extract
glutamine
glycine
N-acetyl glucosamine
gamma oryzanol
deglycyrrhized licorice root
d-limonene
zinc carnosine

18

what is David Lamson's protocol for heartburn? (2 fold)

1. decrease irritative products of fermentation by taking pancreatic enzymes with meals and betaine HCl if indicated
2. improve tone of sphincters, mucosal health and GI motility with phosphatidylcholine (420 mg BID) and if that doesn't work add Huperzine 50 mg BID

19

what 4 dietary factors could you prescribe to improve gastric emptying? (16 overall)

adequate hydration
eat smaller meals more often
reduce intake of insoluble dietary fiber
reduce foods high in fat
avoid red meat
reduce protein content of dinner
reduce quantity of food at dinner
reduce alcohol consumption
improve glucose regulation
avoid broccoli and cabbage
gluten-free diet
low carb diet
aloe juice
papain (super papaya enzyme plus)
organotherapy (nervium vagum)
improve or replace HCl and pepsin output

20

what are 3 'exercises' one could do to tx gastroparesis?

1. contract and relax the abdominal muscles w/regular rhythm immediately after meals (work up to 100 reps/meal)
2. flex and extend the abdomen (sitting or standing) 20 x's pc
3. chew gum for 1st hr after meals to increase production of saliva, stimulate SM contraction and relax the pylorus

21

7 homeopathics that could be helpful with GERD?

phosphorous
sulphur
robinia
arsenicum
capsicum
carbo veg
nux vom

22

if you have a pt w/pyrosis and suspect serious pathology what are your next steps?

EGD and a barium study

23

if you have a pt w/pyrosis and want to evaluate pancreatic fxn what do you do? what if their levels are low?

stool chymotrypsin
if low dx w/pancreatic insufficiency

24

if you have a pt w/pyrosis what 3 possible dz causing process do you want to r/o? how would you determine each?

SIBO (breath test, serum TTG, AGA, DGP)
hiatal hernia (imaging, reflex and muscle test)
food sensitivities, gluten or lactose intolerance (elimination diet, IgE/IgG, EAV/Caroll)

25

if you have a pt w/pyrosis and want to evaluate gastric pH what are 3 ways you can do that and what are 3 possible results? what might you also evaluate at this time? how would you do this?

can do Heidelberg, string test or trial
could have hypo/achlorhydria, euchlorhydria or hyperchlorhydria
at this time you would want to evaluate GI flora including H. pylori (H. pylori breath test, stool ag testing, salivary ab testing SIBO breath test)

26

13 H. pylori associated dzs?

peptic ulcer
atrophic gastritis
gastric adenocarcinoma
gastric lymphoma (Maltoma)
metabolic syndrome
CAD
atherosclerotic stroke
pancreatic adenocarcinoma
iron deficiency anemia
immune thrombocytopenic purpura
chronic urticaria
other skin dzs like rosacea
hyperemesis gravidarum

27

7 dzs inversely associated w/H. pylori?

GERD & BE
esophageal adenocarinoma
asthma, eczema, rhintis
fatal cardiovascular events
laryngeal carcinoma
Crohn's dz
Obesity (?)

28

depending where H. pylori is growing in the stomach, what are 3 ways H. pylori overgrowth can affect stomach acid concentrations?

antral infxn: hyperchlorhydria
asx carrier: euchlorhydria
pangastritis: atrophy and hypo/achlorhydria

29

if a pt presents w/PUD what are you specifically going to test for? if they are (-) for that, then what should you suspect as a possible cause?

test for H. pylori
if (-) for H. pylori then ask about medication use, esp NSAIDs

30

what are 3 tx options besides GERD tx options, which you could use to tx PUD?

robert's formula- 2 caps ac and hs
cabbage juice (work up to 1-2 pints/d for up to 6 weeks
counseling, stress management, etc.