How many German soldiers died in WWI?
1.7 million German soldiers died in WWI.
What caused food supplies to run low at the end of WWI?
Naval Blockade by the British meant that food supplies ran low
What killer strain of disease caused thousands of Germans to die every week?
Winter 1918, killer strain of flu swept across Europe. Thousands died every week in Germany.
Why was Kaiser Wilhelm forced to abdicate?
Nov 1918: Kaiser Wilhelm forced to abdicate due growing unrest from the military and civilians.
Who became the first President of the Weimar Republic?
1919: Friedrich Ebert, leader of Social Democrats, became president.
What did the Big Three force Germany to become?
The Big Three forced Germany to have a democracy.
How much land was taken away from Germany?
Land-13% of land taken away and all colonies given away.
How much was their military reduced to?
Army-reduced 100,000 men, no air force and only allowed 6 battleships.
How much did the reparations to Belgium, France and Britain cost Germany?
Money-forced to pay £6,600 million in reparations to Britain, France and Belgium.
What was Germany forced to accept?
Blame- forced to accept all the guilt for the causing WWI.
How often was the President elected and who did they appoint?
President Elected every 7 years and chose the Chancellor.
Where was the Chancellor chosen from?
Chancellor chosen by the President from the biggest party in the Reichstag.
How often was the Reichstag elected?
Members of Parliament were elected to the Reichstag every 4 years by the public.
Who could vote in the Weimar Republic?
Everyone over 20 could vote.
What voting system was used to ensure smaller parties gained seats?
Proportional representation meant smaller parties were took up seats.
What was the uprising of 1919 and who led it?
Spartacist Uprising 1919: Communists led by Rosa Luxemburg attempted to control Berlin.
How many Freikorps took over Berlin in 1920 with Wolfgang Kapp?
Kapp Putsch 1920: 5,000 Freikorps overtook Berlin led by Wolfgang Kapp.
Where did Hitler and the Nazis try to take over in 1923?
Munich Putsch 1923: 3,000 Nazis led by Adolf Hitler tried to take over Bavaria.
Why did the French and Belgian troops invade the Ruhr in 1923?
Invasion of the Ruhr: French and Belgium troops invaded the Ruhr as Germany had not kept up Reparation payments.
What caused hyperinflation?
Hyperinflation: Workers striked in the Ruhr (passive resistance). Led to printing more money to pay them, which eventually made money worthless.
How did Stresemann bring hyperinflation under control?
Changed the currency to the Rentenmark and ended passive resistance to bring Hyperinflation under control.
What did the Dawes plan 1924 do?
Dawes Plan 1924- Big loans from America to help rebuild German economy.
What did the Locarno Pact 1925 do?
Locarno Pact 1925- Agreement with Britain, France, Belgium and Italy not to invade each other.
What did Germany join in 1926?
Join the League of Nations 1926- Given great power status, Germany now had a say in major decisions.
What did the Young plan 1929 do?
Young Plan 1929- Lowered the amount of reparations Germany had to pay.
How did Hitler’s leadership help the Nazi party gain support?
Leadership: Hitler was an excellent public speaker and enthused those who listened to him.
What promises did the Nazi party make through their propaganda?
Promises and Propaganda: the Nazi party made promises through propaganda, such work for the unemployed and scrapping the ToV.
Which section of society had a particular fear of communism?
Fear of Communism: The Nazi party fostered fear of a communist revolution through propaganda, especially with middle class businessmen.
Why did the Great Depression of the 1930s help the Nazi party gain support?
Great Depression: Made people turn to extreme political parties. Nazis made people believe that they would make things better.
Who chose Hitler to become Chancellor in January 1933?
Political Deal: President Hindenburg and Von Papen chose to make Hitler Chancellor, hoping to be able to control him.
What happened in Feb 1933?
Reichstag Fire: Feb 1933, blamed on Dutch Communist. Communist banned from Reichstag as a result.
What powers did the Enabling Act give Hitler?
Enabling Act: March 1933 Law passed that gave Hitler the power to pass laws without going through the Reichstag.
What was banned in July 1933?
Political Parties banned: July 1933.
What was the Night of the Long Knives?
Night of the Long Knives: June 1934 Rohm and the SA were killed by the SS due to fears of rebellion and the army not trusting Hitler.
How did Hindenburg’s death mean Hitler became dictator of Germany?
Hindenburg’s Death: Aug 1934 Hindenburg dies. Hitler declares himself Fuhrer, taking both position of President and Chancellor. Army swears an oath to die for him.
How did the Nazis control the courts?
Courts: Nazis controlled judges and courts of law. Opponents did receive a fair trial.
Who led the Gestapo?
Gestapo: Led by Heydrich.
What did the Gestapo do?
Power to arrest people without reason and spied on people through their neighbours.
Where were political prisoners sent by the Gestapo and SS?
Concentration Camps: Those arrested by the Gestapo or SS were sent to Concentration Camps.
Who ran the SS and what did they do?
SS: Run by Himmler. Took over the police forces.
How many writers were banned by the Nazis?
2,500 writers were banned.
How were newspapers controlled?
Newspapers: Nazis controlled them and what would be written. Had to be approved by Nazi press agency.
Where was the famous rally held by the Nazis?
How many attended the Nuremberg rallies?
What did each household have to hear important Nazi messages?
Radios: Each household had to have radio set. Important Nazi messages were played.
What did 18-25 year old males have to join and do?
18-25 year old males had to do 2 years military service and 6 months in the National Labour Service.
What helped reduced unemployment?
Huge building programmes reduced unemployment.
What was the aim of the Four Year Plan?
Four Year plan was designed to reduce unemployment and increase military arms.
What organisation aimed to improve working conditions?
Beauty of Labour scheme aimed to improve working conditions
What organisation set up leisure activities for workers?
Strength Through Joy set up to organise leisure time for workers.
What were women removed from?
Removed from the employment register
What were mothers given to celebrate larger families?
Honour cross of the Germany mother handed out to celebrate large families. 8= Gold, 6=Silver, 4=Bronze.
What were new brides offered if they agreed not to work?
Loans offered to new brides who agreed not to work
How were women expected to dress and look like?
Told to wear flat shoes, no make-up and loose clothing.
What was made compulsory in 1937?
Duty Year made compulsory in 1937. Worked on farms etc. in preparation for war.
What did school lessons and textbooks emphasise?
School lessons and textbooks emphasised Nazi beliefs.
What did children learn in History and Biology?
History=Nazi Interpretation of ToV, evils of communism. Biology= Taught racial superiority and how ‘spot’ a Jewish person
What was the aim of Hitler Youth?
Hitler Youth aim was to indoctrinate young boys with Nazi ideas, such as training for war