Give examples of factors influencing industrial process design?
- availability, sustainability and cost of feedstock(s)
- opportunities for recycling
- energy requirements
- marketability of by-products
- product yield
Give examples of environmental factors influencing industrial process design?
- minimising waste
- avoiding the use or production of toxic substances
- designing products which will biodegrade if appropriate
Why are balanced equations important for reactions?
Balanced equations show the mole ratio(s) of reactants and products.
What is meant by the molar volume of a gas?
The molar volume is the volume occupied by one mole of a gas.
The units used for the molar volume are l mol-1 (litres per mole).
Same for all gases.
What effects the value of the molar volume?
Temperature and pressure
How would a number of moles be calculated if given a mass and gram formula mass?
n = m/GFM
How would number of moles calculated if given a volume and concentration?
n = c x v
What is meant by an excess reactant?
When one reactant is in excess, there will always be some left over. The other reactant becomes a limiting factor and controls how much of each product is produced.
How can the percentage yield be calculated?
% Yield = actual yield / theoretical yield x 100
What does a higher percentage yield show about a reaction's efficiency?
The higher the percentage yield is, the more efficient the reaction.
What does a reaction's atom economy show?
The atom economy of a chemical reaction is a measure of the percentage of reactants that become useful products.
How can the atom economy be calculated?
% Atom economy = mass of desired product / total mass of products x 100