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Flashcards in GI 2 Deck (2)
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1

Describe the mouth.

Mouth: entry point
- Lips, tongue, palate, teeth, salivary gland all relevant
Lips: retain food and guide it

Tongue: guiding food during chewing. Keeps food bolus under teeth and during swallowing.
- Sensory afferent from taste buds but also long loop reflexes.
- Skeletal muscle. Voluntary contol
- Involuntary activity: micropositioning tongue to make sure its not under your teeth

Palate: forms roof of oral cavity: separates mouth and nasal passages (so food doesn't go into your nose)
- Allows you to breath and chew at the same time
- Uvula closes off nasal passages during swallowing



Teeth: tearing, grinding, mixing food
- Upper and lower teeth fit together (occlusion)
- Occulision grinds food
- Break it down to something that can be acted upon by enzymes
- Exposure of taste buts is important

Chewing: initially voluntary then reflexive.
- Reflexive contraction of jaw, lip, cheek, tongue muscles mediated by sensory afferents. Make sure it's doing its job.
- Taste buds initate long loop reflective
Salivary, gastric, pancreatic, bile in anticipation.

2

Describe secretions of the oral cavity.

Secretion: salivary glands.
- Parotid, submandibular, sublingual.
- All coordinate release of contents through duct (exocrine glands) into a duct.
- Saliva is product.

Mostly water, some electrolytes and protien
- Needed for dissolving
- Amalase and lysozyme and musus

- Stimulate taste buds
- Aids in speech (when mouth is dry in sympathetic drive, its hard to speak)
- Clean out mouth and flush food residue away

Mucus; slippery glycoproteins.
- Makes bolus
- Lubricates it so it doesn't get stuck.

Salivary secretions: saliva and mucus.

Amalase: breaks down polysacc to maltose.
- Initation for carb digestion.
- **where does digestion occur for various nutrients** know this for the test.

- Not hugely important, and have no issue digesting carbs.

Lysozyme: lyses the cell wall of some bacteria
- Protection against infection.
- Sometimes you'll inject bacteria with every bite, so you have lysozyme to decrease the bacteria there.

Bicarbonate ion: neutralizes acid foods.
- Makes it not too acidic to help with dental health
- Acid makes cavities.