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Flashcards in GI Deck (135)
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What are the four functions of the gi system?

ingestion, digestion, absorption, elimination

1

what is in the upper gi tract?

mouth, esophagus, stoamch

2

what is in the middle gi tract

small intestine

3

what is amylase

helps breakdown larger polysaccharides into smaller sugars and dextrins
secreted by the parotid gland

4

what is in the lower gi tract?

caecum, colon, rectum

5

peritoneum

one continuous thin membrane that lines the abdominal cavity
supports abdominal organs
highly vascularized
lots of lymphatics

6

parietal peritoneum

outer layer attached to abdominal wall

7

peritoneal cavity

serous
sterile
comes into contact with lymphatics and blood

8

visceral peritoneum

inner layer wrapped around organs
cells secrete fluid to help keep organs slide freely past one another

9

esophagus

posteriort o trachea
propel food into stomach
only part of upper gi tract where no enzymes are secreted

10

upper esophageal shpincter

prevent air from entering the esophagus
aspiration of gastic contents back into the mouth

11

lower esophageal sphincter

controls passage of food into stomach
prevents reflux of gastric contents

12

your patients medical history included GERD. What is the pathophysiological abnormality?

lower esophageal sphincter incompetence
risk of upper gi bleed
cancer of essophagus
ulcers

13

Serosa

part of the visceral peritoneum
secretes serous fluid

14

muscularis

longitudinal and circular
stomach additional layer
muscle layer that helps mix chyme and propel it forward

15

what are the four layers of the stomach from outer to inner

serosa
muscularis
submucosa
mucosa

16

submucosa

blood vessels
lymphatics
when erosion through the mucosa can lead to bleeds here

17

mucosa

tight epithelial junctions
barrier to bacteria and other molecules
layer right against food and gastric contents
when tight junctions loosen, there is erosion which can lead to ulcers
secrete mucous to help protect the wall from the acidity of the gi contents

18

ruggae

coarse folds that expand and contract to help digest foods without increasing pressure
secretes acid

19

what are the functions of the stomach

temporary storage and mixing of chyme
regulated emptying of gastric contents
hematostatin inhibits the release of gastrin
secretes substances for digestion
releases gastrin and somatostatin

20

gastric secretions

hydrochlorioc acid
pepsin (helps break down protein)
mucous (with bicarb to neutralize acid)
intrinsic factor (for b12 absorption)
gastrin(promotes growth gastric mucousa)

21

parts of the small intestine

duodenum (extends to ligament of treitz)
jejunum
ileum

22

primary function of small bowel

nutrient absorption

23

talk about how small intestine digests carbs, proteins, fats, vitamins, minerals and water

proteases from pancrease to break down proteins
carbs get further broken dow
bile helps break down fats (produced in liver, stored in gallbladder)
water soluble vitamins and minerals and water passively reabsorb

24

microvilli

mucosa and submucosa covered by a series of projectile like folds
drastically increases the absorptive digestive surface

25

which other organs facilitate absoprtion and digestion

pancrease
liver
gallbladder

26

peistalsis

contraction above with distal relaxation
sequential contraction

27

segmentation

rhythmic contraction to help propel food bolus forward

28

What are the two modes of gi motility

peristalsis
segmentation

29

hepatic flexure

ascending colon to transverse colon bend