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Flashcards in GI cancer Deck (11):
1

upper GI cancers

mainly adenocarcinomas from lower oesophagus downwards
squamous cell carcinoma, upper/mid
GI stromal tumours
lymphoma
mets

2

achalasia:

failure of lower oesophageal sphincter to open when eating, causing food to get 'stuck'. increased Ca risk

3

TNM staging

primary tumour invades:
T1 lamina propria/submucosa
T2 muscularis propria
T3 adventitia
T4 adjacent structures

Regional LNs (N)
N1 1/2 nearby nodes
N2 3-6 nearby nodes
N3 >7 nearby nodes

Mets
M0 none
M1 distant spread

4

pathology of gastric cancers

adenocarcinomas (90%)
lymphomas (up to 8%)
leiomyosarcomas (1-3%)
GI stromal tumours

5

cholangiocarcinoma

cancer of the biliary tree
idiopathic or a complication of primary billiary cirrhosis
presents with painless obstructive jaundice

6

clinical presentations of colorectal cancer

right sided: Fe deficiency anaemia, palpable mass
Left sided: change in bowel habit, rectal bleed
Rectum: PR bleed, tenesmus
(+ all cancer red flags for all)

7

carcinoembryonic antigen is raised in which type of cancer?

Raised in 85% of patients with colorectal cancer. higher value is associated with a worse prognosis

8

Dukes staging

A: in situ
B1: into, but not beyond muscularis propria, no LN
B2: through muscularis propria, no LN
C1: LN positive, but not apical
C2: apical node positive
D: Mets

9

CRC prognosis according to dukes

A: 95%
B: 70-80%
C: 40%
D: 5%

10

CRC prognosis according to TNM staging

I: 95%
II: 70-80%
III: 40%
IV: 5%

11

screening methods in CRC

faecal occult blood test
flexi sigi
colonoscopy
(recommend screeining between 50-75 years old)